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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Presence of Human Enteric Viruses, Protozoa, and Indicators of Pathogens in the Bagmati River, Nepal

1
Department of Natural, Biotic and Social Environment Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2
Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
3
Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane University, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2100, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
4
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2018, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7020038
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.), human-fecal markers (human Bacteroidales and JC and BK polyomaviruses), and index viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus). During a one-year period between October 2015 and September 2016, a total of 18 surface water samples were collected periodically from three sites along the river. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, all eight types of human enteric viruses tested—including adenoviruses, noroviruses, and enteroviruses, were detected frequently at the midstream and downstream sites, with concentrations of 4.4–8.3 log copies/L. Enteroviruses and saliviruses were the most frequently detected enteric viruses, which were present in 72% (13/18) of the tested samples. Giardia spp. were detected by fluorescence microscopy in 78% (14/18) of the samples, with a lower detection ratio at the upstream site. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected only at the midstream and downstream sites, with a positive ratio of 39% (7/18). The high concentrations of enteric viruses suggest that the midstream and downstream regions are heavily contaminated with human feces and that there are alarming possibilities of waterborne diseases. The concentrations of enteric viruses were significantly higher in the dry season than the wet season (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of human enteric viruses and the tested indicators for the presence of pathogens (IPP) (p < 0.05), suggesting that these IPP can be used to estimate the presence of enteric viruses in the Bagmati River water. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bagmati River; enteric virus; human-fecal marker; index virus; protozoa Bagmati River; enteric virus; human-fecal marker; index virus; protozoa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tandukar, S.; Sherchand, J.B.; Bhandari, D.; Sherchan, S.P.; Malla, B.; Ghaju Shrestha, R.; Haramoto, E. Presence of Human Enteric Viruses, Protozoa, and Indicators of Pathogens in the Bagmati River, Nepal. Pathogens 2018, 7, 38.

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