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A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt

1
Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonoses and Animal Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 41511 Ismailia, Egypt
3
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany
4
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, 335516 Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
5
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2017, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6030033
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt. Some zoonotic agents are “exotic” for Egypt (e.g., MERS-CoV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), others are endemic (e.g., Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis and Avian influenza). Transboundary transmission of emerging pathogens from and to Egypt occurred via different routes, mainly importation/exportation of apparently healthy animals or migratory birds. Control of the infectious agents and multidrug resistant bacteria in the veterinary sector is on the frontline for infection control in humans. The implementation of control programs significantly decreased the prevalence of some zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, in some localities within the country. Sustainable awareness, education and training targeting groups at high risk (veterinarians, farmers, abattoir workers, nurses, etc.) are important to lessen the burden of zoonotic diseases among Egyptians. There is an urgent need for collaborative surveillance and intervention plans for the control of these diseases in Egypt. View Full-Text
Keywords: zoonotic diseases; Egypt; influenza; MERS-CoV; rabies; cryptosporidiosis; fascioliasis; campylobacteriosis; salmonellosis; Middle East zoonotic diseases; Egypt; influenza; MERS-CoV; rabies; cryptosporidiosis; fascioliasis; campylobacteriosis; salmonellosis; Middle East
MDPI and ACS Style

Helmy, Y.A.; El-Adawy, H.; Abdelwhab, E.M. A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt. Pathogens 2017, 6, 33.

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