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Soc. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Research has confirmed the link between gangs and violence, but gangs are also involved in nonviolent offending. This “cafeteria-style” offending is found in self-report surveys and qualitative interviews, but less is known about nonviolent gang crimes that come to the attention of the police. This finding could be due to not only an emphasis on understanding gang homicides but also law enforcement practices that fail to identify nonviolent crime as gang activity. To build knowledge on the variety of gang crimes that come to the attention of the police, we examine 741 gang-related incident reports collected over four years from a law enforcement agency in the United States. This study explores the reasons why incidents were attributed to gangs and compares the characteristics of violent, drug, and nonviolent gang-related incidents. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Social Capital and Prosocial Behavior among German Children
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110215 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 341
Abstract
A robust literature connects children’s and adolescents’ social capital to a range of desirable outcomes, including increased academic achievement and decreased delinquency. We extend this research by extending possible associations with child social capital to positive behaviors, measured here as prosocial behaviors. We [...] Read more.
A robust literature connects children’s and adolescents’ social capital to a range of desirable outcomes, including increased academic achievement and decreased delinquency. We extend this research by extending possible associations with child social capital to positive behaviors, measured here as prosocial behaviors. We examine data on 6th graders in Germany. We select the German context in part because one important source of child social capital, participation in religious congregations, is not as prevalent in modern Germany as in the US samples from which many social capital studies are derived. We use data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) and measures of child social capital, including parent–child interactions, family activities, and religious participation, to predict prosocial behavior. Results indicate that social capital in the form of parent-child interactions in the home and child religiosity is associated weakly with greater prosocial behavior. These results suggest that adults can help children develop stronger prosocial norms by increasing interaction with their children and by exposing their children to network ties in religious settings, but also that social capital can be derived different ways in different contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Social Capital)
Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to “Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders”
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110214 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
This paper provides some historical context to understand border formations. By comprehending how our present system of borders and exclusions function, we can gain a new appreciation for migration. Moreover, it presents arguments for open borders to counter anti-immigrant policies, includes short summaries [...] Read more.
This paper provides some historical context to understand border formations. By comprehending how our present system of borders and exclusions function, we can gain a new appreciation for migration. Moreover, it presents arguments for open borders to counter anti-immigrant policies, includes short summaries of relevant research, as well as for each article included in this Special Issue. Together, these articles show how more welcoming policies towards immigrants, refugees, and asylum seekers do not threaten popular sovereignty but, conversely, strengthen both democracy and local rights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Profession and Industry of Work on the Labor Mobility of the Applicant
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110213 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 339
Abstract
The article examines the problem of the influence of the profession and industry of work of Russian applicants on their labor mobility. The general growth of labor mobility of the population is currently caused by several factors: change in the labor values of [...] Read more.
The article examines the problem of the influence of the profession and industry of work of Russian applicants on their labor mobility. The general growth of labor mobility of the population is currently caused by several factors: change in the labor values of applicants, technological progress, desynchronization of the education sector and the labor market, growth of the economic crisis, etc. The main reasons prompting applicants to think about changing their current job in the article are the aspects of their relation to those professional areas and industries in which they are currently working or would like to work in the future. The authors analyzed the results of surveys of applicants of various ages and from various professional fields regarding their desire to change their profession (without taking into account the influence of the material factor), as well as their opinions regarding the most attractive professional fields for them. In addition, there are the opinions of applicants regarding the reasons prompting them to think about changing their profession. The article also examines data from interviews with applicants regarding their desire to move to work in a company from another industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beyond ‘Family Planning’—Local Realities on Contraception and Abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110212 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Family planning has long been promoted within international health efforts because of its potential benefits for controlling population growth, reducing poverty and maternal and child mortality, empowering women, and enhancing environmental sustainability. In Burkina Faso, the government and donor partners share a commitment [...] Read more.
Family planning has long been promoted within international health efforts because of its potential benefits for controlling population growth, reducing poverty and maternal and child mortality, empowering women, and enhancing environmental sustainability. In Burkina Faso, the government and donor partners share a commitment to ‘family planning’, notably by increasing the low uptake of ‘modern’ contraceptive methods in the general population and reducing recourse to induced abortion, which remains legally restricted. This paper presents ethnographic findings that show the complexity of family planning within the social context of women’s lives and care-seeking trajectories. It draws on participant observation in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso’s capital, and interviews with women with a wide range of reproductive experiences and providers of family planning services. First, the paper shows that women’s use of contraceptive methods and abortion is embedded in the wider social dilemmas relating to marriage, sexuality, and gendered relationships. Second, it shows that women use contraceptives to meet a variety of needs other than those promoted in public health policies. Thus, while women’s use of contraceptive methods is often equated with family planning within public health research and health policy discourse, the uses women make of them imbue them with other meanings related to social, spiritual, or aesthetic goals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Strategies for Territorial Peace: The Overcoming of the Structural Violence in Women Living in Palmira, Colombia
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110211 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Women experience different types of violence, and poverty is one of them. The aim of this work was to show the situation of poverty experienced by women in Palmira and how this condition affects both their participation in and contribution to the achievement [...] Read more.
Women experience different types of violence, and poverty is one of them. The aim of this work was to show the situation of poverty experienced by women in Palmira and how this condition affects both their participation in and contribution to the achievement of territorial peace—a central political target in our country. For this, a descriptive and predictive study was carried out by applying a survey to measure the different types of violence affecting Palmirana women. The results demonstrate the predominance of structural violence suffered by women, which creates unfavorable conditions for the construction of peace in Colombia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Teaching Emotional Design
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110210 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Emotional design focuses on providing intended users with a positive emotional experience. Thus far, the concept of emotional design has primarily been restricted to the fields of research and industry. Most professionals using emotional design slowly acquired the required skills by experience and [...] Read more.
Emotional design focuses on providing intended users with a positive emotional experience. Thus far, the concept of emotional design has primarily been restricted to the fields of research and industry. Most professionals using emotional design slowly acquired the required skills by experience and without direct education. Teaching emotional design to design students has been overlooked due to its difficulty. This research introduces a new approach to teaching emotional design, which aims to prevent negative influences from being added to the products created by design students. A systematic method is introduced to make it easier for inexperienced design students to grasp emotional design. Students are first taught proper methods of data collection to determine users’ emotional requirements. Students are then taught how to summarize the data, as well as develop feasibility testing strategies to obtain promising ideas. The proposed teaching approach for emotional design has been proven efficient in the case study course conducted in this research. Graduate-level design students learned how to design products according to users’ emotional requirements. The students successfully produced several designs that clearly provided positive user experiences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“There We Are Nothing, Here We Are Nothing!”—The Enduring Effects of the Rohingya Genocide
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110209 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Debates continue as to whether crimes committed against the Rohingya in Myanmar amount to genocide. This article will address this question, framed in the broad context of the Rohingya victimisation in Myanmar, but also the narrow context of the Rohingya refugee lived experience [...] Read more.
Debates continue as to whether crimes committed against the Rohingya in Myanmar amount to genocide. This article will address this question, framed in the broad context of the Rohingya victimisation in Myanmar, but also the narrow context of the Rohingya refugee lived experience in Malaysia. The authors contend that the Rohingya are victims of genocide, and this is in part evidenced by the destruction of the Rohingya culture, including through assimilation (and therefore loss of group identity) in refugee destination countries, such as Malaysia. This analysis is based on the consideration of theories of genocide process and definition, international law, and qualitative data collected during extensive anthropological fieldwork by one of the authors with urban refugees in peninsular Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Displaced People in Exceptional Times)
Open AccessArticle
Intergroup Threat and Heterosexual Cisgender Women’s Support for Policies Regarding the Admittance of Trans Women at a Women’s College
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110208 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Although spaces once reserved for cisgender women are becoming increasingly accessible to trans women, few studies have examined cisgender women’s responses to such changes. Informed by social identity perspectives, we examined if heterosexual cisgender women’s reactions to two types of women’s college admissions [...] Read more.
Although spaces once reserved for cisgender women are becoming increasingly accessible to trans women, few studies have examined cisgender women’s responses to such changes. Informed by social identity perspectives, we examined if heterosexual cisgender women’s reactions to two types of women’s college admissions policies pertaining to trans women depended on their appraisals of intergroup threat—or the degree to which they perceived trans women as a threat to cisgender women. Four-hundred-and-forty heterosexual cisgender women completed a measure of intergroup threat and then read 1 of 2 articles about a women’s college’s admissions policy (accept trans women vs. reject trans women). Following the article, they indicated their support for the policy they read about. Overall, participants were significantly more supportive of the admissions policy when it was framed as being inclusive of trans women. The effect of policy type on policy support was moderated by intergroup threat. Specifically, women who were not particularly threatened by trans women expressed significantly more policy support when the policy was described as being inclusive of trans women, rather than as exclusionary. Alternatively, highly threatened women were significantly more likely to show support when the policy was described in terms of excluding trans women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Artificial Intelligence Research and Its Contributions to the European Union’s Political Governance: Comparative Study between Member States
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110207 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 660
Abstract
In the last six decades, many advances have been made in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Bearing in mind that AI technologies are influencing societies and political systems differently, it can be useful to understand what are the common issues between similar [...] Read more.
In the last six decades, many advances have been made in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Bearing in mind that AI technologies are influencing societies and political systems differently, it can be useful to understand what are the common issues between similar states in the European Union and how these political systems can collaborate with each other, seeking synergies, finding opportunities and saving costs. Therefore, we carried out an exploratory research among similar states of the European Union, in terms of scientific research in areas of AI technologies, namely: Portugal, Greece, Austria, Belgium and Sweden. A key finding of this research is that intelligent decision support systems (IDSS) are essential for the political decision-making process, since politics normally deals with complex and multifaceted decisions, which involve trade-offs between different stakeholders. As public health is becoming increasingly relevant in the field of the European Union, the IDSSs can provide relevant contributions, as it may allow sharing critical information and assist in the political decision-making process, especially in response to crisis situations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Connection between Social Capital and Sport Success of Young Tennis Players
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110206 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Young athletes are influenced by different physical, psychological, and social factors. Social factors significantly impact a young athlete’s growth. Parents, coaches, and schools are important factors in young athletes’ sports careers. Achieving sport success without their support would be a real challenge. Social [...] Read more.
Young athletes are influenced by different physical, psychological, and social factors. Social factors significantly impact a young athlete’s growth. Parents, coaches, and schools are important factors in young athletes’ sports careers. Achieving sport success without their support would be a real challenge. Social capital is a resource that comes from social relationships and social networks. It is a resource that impacts athletes and sports performance. The aim of this study was to determine the connection between social capital and competitive success in young tennis players. This research was conducted with participants of an ITF (International Tennis Federation) junior tournament in tennis. Research included 75 tournament players (N = 36 girls, age: 15.54 ± 1.29 years; N = 39 boys, age: 16.13 ± 0.98 years). Participants filled out a questionnaire which evaluated their social capital. Social capital predictors were significant predictors of sporting success (13.1% variance explained), which indicated that there is a moderate association between social capital indicators and sport success in young tennis players. Sports performance was higher with a higher degree of family and sports team social capital among girls. It was higher with a lower school social capital among boys. Intervention that leverages social capital might serve as an avenue for performance promotion in youth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Social Capital)
Open AccessArticle
Mapping the Cultural Identities of Youths in Hong Kong from a Social Capital Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110205 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
With its unique geopolitical status and multicultural setting, Hong Kong has harbored different youth groups generated from cross-border migration with mainland China who are tied to different cultural values and identifications. This study aims to investigate how social capital embedded in the family, [...] Read more.
With its unique geopolitical status and multicultural setting, Hong Kong has harbored different youth groups generated from cross-border migration with mainland China who are tied to different cultural values and identifications. This study aims to investigate how social capital embedded in the family, school, and community influences the cultural identities across three groups of Chinese youths in the educational system: local students; cross-border students (born in Hong Kong, living in the neighbor city of mainland China but attending schools in Hong Kong on daily commute); and new immigrant students (born in mainland China but living in Hong Kong for less than seven years). Using data from a cross-sectional survey with 2180 fourth- to ninth-grade students in Hong Kong, the logistic regression results suggest that family and community social capital play significant roles in shaping the cultural identity of youths. Implications of the research findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Social Capital)
Open AccessArticle
The Social Network Consequences of a Gang Murder Blowout
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110204 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 385
Abstract
An unexpected crisis in a criminal organization offers a rare opportunity to analyze whether and how the configuration of business and trust relationships changes in response to external shocks. The current study recreates the social network of the Red Scorpion gang members involved [...] Read more.
An unexpected crisis in a criminal organization offers a rare opportunity to analyze whether and how the configuration of business and trust relationships changes in response to external shocks. The current study recreates the social network of the Red Scorpion gang members involved in the Surrey Six Murder, one of the deadliest gang-related homicides to occur in Canada. The event, which involved two bystanders and six victims in total, was the result of a poorly executed retaliation. Our analyses focus on two phases of the network, the conspiracy phase and the post-murder phase. In each phase, we examine the balance of business, trust, and conflictual ties. Results show that the relative importance of key participants changed from the conspiracy to the post-murder phases, whereby strong, trusted ties gained prominence over the mostly business-oriented network of the conspiracy phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolving Patterns of Aggression: Investigating the Structure of Gang Violence during the Era of Civil Gang Injunctions
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110203 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Mapping the structural characteristics of attack behavior, this study explores how violent conflict evolved with the implementation of civil gang injunctions (CGIs). Networks were generated by linking defendants and victims named in 963 prosecutions involving street gangs active in the City of Los [...] Read more.
Mapping the structural characteristics of attack behavior, this study explores how violent conflict evolved with the implementation of civil gang injunctions (CGIs). Networks were generated by linking defendants and victims named in 963 prosecutions involving street gangs active in the City of Los Angeles (1998–2013). Aggregating directed ties to 318 groups associated with the combatants, we compare four observations that correspond with distinct phases of CGI implementation—development (1998–2001), assent (2002–2005), maturity (2006–2009), and saturation (2010–2013). Using a triad census to calculate a ratio of simple patterns (retaliation, directed lines, and out-stars) to complex three-way interactions, we observed that CGIs were associated with a substantive thickening of conflict—greater complexity was found in conflict relations over time. Dissecting the nature of change, stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) show that enjoined gangs are more likely to initiate transitive closure. The findings suggest that crime control efforts must make regular adjustments in response to the evolving structure of gang interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Influence of Drug Trafficking Gangs on Overdose Deaths in the Largest Narcotics Market in the Eastern United States
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110202 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Research has found that drug markets tend to cluster in space, potentially because of the profit that can be made when customers are drawn to areas with multiple suppliers. But few studies have examined how these clusters of drug markets—which have been termed [...] Read more.
Research has found that drug markets tend to cluster in space, potentially because of the profit that can be made when customers are drawn to areas with multiple suppliers. But few studies have examined how these clusters of drug markets—which have been termed “agglomeration economies”—may be related to accidental overdose deaths, and in particular, the spatial distribution of mortality from overdose. Focusing on a large neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, known for its open-air drug markets, this study examines whether deaths from accidental drug overdose are clustered around street corners controlled by drug trafficking gangs. This study incorporates theoretically-informed social and physical environmental characteristics of street corner units into the models predicting overdose deaths. Given a number of environmental changes relevant to drug use locations was taking place in the focal neighborhood during the analysis period, the authors first employ a novel concentration metric—the Rare Event Concentration Coefficient—to assess clustering of overdose deaths annually between 2015 and 2019. The results of these models reveal that overdose deaths became less clustered over time and that the density was considerably lower after 2017. Hence, the predictive models in this study are focused on the two-year period between 2018 and 2019. Results from spatial econometric regression models find strong support for the association between corner drug markets and accidental overdose deaths. In addition, a number of sociostructural factors, such as concentrated disadvantage, and physical environmental factors, particularly blighted housing, are associated with a higher rate of overdose deaths. Implications from this study highlight the need for efforts that strategically coordinate law enforcement, social service provision and reductions in housing blight targeted to particular geographies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
Open AccessArticle
Boundaryless Twitter Use: On the Affordances of Social Media
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110201 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
For this study, we followed the director general (DG) of a large Swedish public authority on Twitter. We analyzed the data from Twitter and from interviews in terms of four affordances that distinguish social media from more traditional technologies: visibility, persistence, association and [...] Read more.
For this study, we followed the director general (DG) of a large Swedish public authority on Twitter. We analyzed the data from Twitter and from interviews in terms of four affordances that distinguish social media from more traditional technologies: visibility, persistence, association and editability. We suggest that to understand social media affordances, it is necessary to consider the medium and the situation it creates and how this increases the range of possible interpretations. Therefore, we propose counterparts to the affordances of visibility, persistence, association and editability, in the form of invisibility, fluidity, dissociation and indeterminacy, to be included in an analysis of social media affordances and, as we argue, the creation of a persona through Twitter communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Open AccessArticle
Promoting the Self-Determination of Mexican Young Adults Identified with Intellectual Disability: A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis of Their Discussion about Goal Setting
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110200 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Self-determination is the product of the individuals’ volition in interaction with their environment. Enhancing the self-determination of young adults with intellectual disability (ID) has been related to positive adult outcomes. Educational programmes to promote self-determination commonly rely on the interaction between students and [...] Read more.
Self-determination is the product of the individuals’ volition in interaction with their environment. Enhancing the self-determination of young adults with intellectual disability (ID) has been related to positive adult outcomes. Educational programmes to promote self-determination commonly rely on the interaction between students and educators to set goals and make plans to achieve them. Yet the quality of these interactions has been little studied. This research involves Mexican students identified with ID who had accessed universities through the education programme: Building Bridges. The paper presents findings of a sociocultural discourse analysis of the conversations that arose when three students, a teacher and a facilitator discussed courses of action to achieve the students’ “Challenge of the Month” goals. We discuss how the student’s goal setting could be supported and hindered in these conversations. Potential constraints on students’ goal setting are noted when discussions of concrete courses of action are prioritized over discussions that would lead students to reflect more deeply on the motives behind their goals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Violent and Non-Violent Gang Incidents: An Exploration of Gang-Related Police Incident Reports
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110199 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Prior research has established a strong link between gangs and violence. Additionally, this connection is demonstrated across multiple methodologies such as self-report surveys, qualitative interviews, as well as official records. Officially recorded gang data can be increasingly hard to obtain because data collection [...] Read more.
Prior research has established a strong link between gangs and violence. Additionally, this connection is demonstrated across multiple methodologies such as self-report surveys, qualitative interviews, as well as official records. Officially recorded gang data can be increasingly hard to obtain because data collection approaches differ by agency, county, city, state, and country. One method for obtaining official gang data is through the analysis of police incident reports, which often rely on police officers’ subjective classification of an incident as “gang-related.” In this study we examine 741 gang-related incident reports collected over four years from the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department. This study will explore reasons why incidents were attributed to gangs as well as compare the characteristics of violent, drug, and non-violent gang-related incidents. This work has implications for understanding the complexities associated with gang incident reports as well as for the commonality of violent gang crimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
Open AccessArticle
Trade and Strike Activity in the Postwar United States
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110198 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 669
Abstract
This paper examines the effect of international trade on strike activity within the United States since World War II. Globalization may influence strike activity through its effects on the bargaining position of labor. Alternatively, if labor and management take their changed bargaining positions [...] Read more.
This paper examines the effect of international trade on strike activity within the United States since World War II. Globalization may influence strike activity through its effects on the bargaining position of labor. Alternatively, if labor and management take their changed bargaining positions into account, the rate of change in openness could create greater uncertainty in negotiations between them and lead to more strikes as a result. Empirical analysis of strike activity in the 50 states over this period supports the argument concerning uncertainty in the bargaining process. Import competition may also indirectly reduce strike activity by decreasing union density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trade and Human Rights)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Capital and Age at Sexual Debut: Race Differences in South Africa
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110197 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Literature on social capital has long considered whether and how social capital is protective against various risk behaviors, including age at sexual debut. However, much of this literature uses data from wealthy countries in the Global North and is often cross-sectional, dampening generalizability. [...] Read more.
Literature on social capital has long considered whether and how social capital is protective against various risk behaviors, including age at sexual debut. However, much of this literature uses data from wealthy countries in the Global North and is often cross-sectional, dampening generalizability. In this paper, we employ longitudinal South African data from adolescents in the Cape Area Panel Study to examine the longitudinal link between social capital and age at sexual debut. We first examine the overall relationship between age at sexual debut and social capital and then examine how the relationship differs by race. Results suggest that, on average, each additional activity is associated with an approximate 2 month delay in age at sexual debut. However, we observed steep racial differences. For Africans, the link between social capital and age at sexual debut was not significant, while the results for Coloureds and Whites were. For Coloureds, each additional activity translated into a 3 month delay in sexual debut, while for Whites we found a 4 month delay. We found no evidence of sex differences. Taken together, these results suggest that social capital is not equally efficacious for all South African adolescents. For Africans, social capital does not appear to be linked to age at sexual debut. In contrast, more social capital activities appear to be linked to delayed sexual debut, most particularly for Whites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Social Capital)
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Open AccessArticle
Far Away, So Close? The Role of Destructive Leadership in the Job Demands–Resources and Recovery Model in Emergency Telework
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110196 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 709
Abstract
During the Covid-19 pandemic, people started teleworking intensively, which has led to some benefits in terms of economic continuity, but also some complaints. International teams of scholars have pointed out the new work-related challenges, underlining leaders’ role in successfully managing them. This study [...] Read more.
During the Covid-19 pandemic, people started teleworking intensively, which has led to some benefits in terms of economic continuity, but also some complaints. International teams of scholars have pointed out the new work-related challenges, underlining leaders’ role in successfully managing them. This study aimed at investigating the role of destructive leadership in the job demands–resources and recovery model during the Covid-19 pandemic. In detail, this study intended to assess (1) whether destructive leadership is positively associated with off-work-hours technology-assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and cognitive demands, as well as whether it decreases autonomy, (2) whether two demands—off-TAJD and cognitive demands—and two resources—social support and autonomy—are respectively negatively and positively related to recovery, and (3) whether recovery mediates the relationship between demands, resources, and exhaustion. A total of 716 French remote workers (61% were women) took part in this study. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. A multi-group structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. The findings confirmed a significant association between destructive leadership, the two job demands, and autonomy; furthermore, all three variables mediated the relationship between destructive leadership and recovery. The findings showed the key role played by recovery as a mediator between, on one hand, off-TAJD, cognitive demands, autonomy, and social support, and, on the other hand, exhaustion. This study highlighted the role of destructive leadership, job resources, job demands, and recovery as determinants of exhaustion, illustrating their relationships in a sample of remote workers. Practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Open AccessArticle
Addictions in Spanish College Students in Confinement Times: Preventive and Social Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110195 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Diverse studies have shown that a significant percentage of the Spanish university population suffers from different addictions. They are both a personal and public health problem if there is not a greater awareness of the risks involved and if the appropriate prevention measures [...] Read more.
Diverse studies have shown that a significant percentage of the Spanish university population suffers from different addictions. They are both a personal and public health problem if there is not a greater awareness of the risks involved and if the appropriate prevention measures are not taken, among them educational ones. In this context, a descriptive and explanatory cross-sectional study was conducted during the first half of June 2020, coinciding with the period of confinement that occurred in Spain during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that this is such an exceptional time, the main objective of this study was to obtain information especially on students’ substance consumption and possible addictions at this time. Knowing the specific situation of this problem in that specific situation may allow for comparative studies in the future. The sample was composed of 310 university students from 14 Spanish universities. The instrument used in the research was the ASSIST questionnaire, developed by the WHO for the detection of alcohol, tobacco, and substance consumption. As result, a moderate and high risk was observed mainly in the following substances: alcohol (36.2%), tobacco (33.2%), cannabis (22.9%), and sedatives (10.3%). Through the logistic regression of the set of drugs, it has been proven that, on the one hand, the addiction to cocaine and sedatives in the family environment and age, on the other hand, are the main predictive variables of drug consumption. The existence of polysubstance abuse was also determined. These data show the need for educational bodies and university institutions to promote awareness, sensitization, and health education programs to deal with this important problem, especially in extraordinary situations, such as the one referred to, which could increase this consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“How to Sustain National Security”: A Case Study of the Celebrations of the Slovak National Uprising as a Securitization Platform
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110194 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
This paper focuses on the ways in which political actors make use of historical legacies to present their own determination to sustain their country’s national security. We use the example of the annual celebrations of the anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising (SNU) [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the ways in which political actors make use of historical legacies to present their own determination to sustain their country’s national security. We use the example of the annual celebrations of the anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising (SNU) to demonstrate the ways in which similar celebrations can become a platform for political actors to express requests and address their audience. Using semi-participant observation, we have analyzed six years of these celebrations (2015–2020) and the securitizing strategies and moral panic creation strategies contained in the speeches of participating politicians. Our analysis shows that securitization is taking place, and labels of threat sources are being given not only to topics that are naturally linked to the celebrated event, but also topics that are in no way related to SNU. Despite this fact, politicians use the legitimacy of the event to manifest their own attempts at sustaining security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Compensatory School Effects and Social Capital
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110193 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore whether and how school-based social capital (SSC) may increase or reduce inequalities in the academic achievement and well-being of students from different backgrounds (class, gender, and ethnicity). SSC here refers to those qualities of social [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore whether and how school-based social capital (SSC) may increase or reduce inequalities in the academic achievement and well-being of students from different backgrounds (class, gender, and ethnicity). SSC here refers to those qualities of social relationships and the degree of interconnectedness between students, teachers, and parents that can support the educational attainment and social adjustment of young people. As the results of our ethnographic studies indicate, there is a significant association between SSC and school composition—i.e., the class and ethnic background of students in a school. The association indicates the stratification effect of social capital in schools as a predominant pattern. In a school with students from higher socio-economic backgrounds, we observed more qualified and motivated teachers, an intensive parental involvement, and, consequently, more constructive and friendly relationships among students. In contrast, in a school located in a disadvantaged area, the social relations were quite the reverse. We then found a third category. In a school with children from lower social class backgrounds placed in an immigrant-dense area, highly committed school staff were able to create an emotional closeness and trust between them, the pupils, and their parents. School-based social capital in this context introduced a sense of solidarity and created a pro-educational climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Social Capital)
Open AccessArticle
Framing the Mother Tac: The Racialised, Sexualised and Gendered Politics of Modern Slavery in Australia
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110192 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 967
Abstract
Centred on the slavery trial “Crown vs. Rungnapha Kanbut” heard in Sydney, New South Wales, between 10 April and 15 May 2019, this article seeks to frame the figure of the “Mother Tac” or the “mother of contract”, also called “mama tac” or [...] Read more.
Centred on the slavery trial “Crown vs. Rungnapha Kanbut” heard in Sydney, New South Wales, between 10 April and 15 May 2019, this article seeks to frame the figure of the “Mother Tac” or the “mother of contract”, also called “mama tac” or “mae tac”—a term used amongst Thai migrants to describe a woman who hosts, collects debts from, and organises work for Thai migrant sex workers in their destination country. It proposes that this largely unexplored figure has come to assume a disproportionate role in the “modern slavery” approach to human trafficking, with its emphasis on absolute victims and individual offenders. The harms suffered by Kanbut’s victims are put into context by referring to existing literature on women accused of trafficking; interviews with Thai migrant sex workers, including Kanbut’s primary victim, and with members from the Australian Federal Police Human Trafficking Unit; and ethnographic field notes. The article unveils how constructions of both victim and offender, as well as definitions of slavery, are racialised, gendered, and sexualised and rely on the victims’ subjective accounts of bounded exploitation. By documenting these and other limitations involved in a criminal justice approach, the authors reveal its shortfalls. For instance, while harsh sentences are meant as a deterrence to others, the complex and structural roots of migrant labour exploitation remain unaffected. This research finds that improved legal migration pathways, the decriminalisation of the sex industry, and improved access to information and support for migrant sex workers are key to reducing heavier forms of labour exploitation, including human trafficking, in the Australian sex industry. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Racial Discrimination Stress, School Belonging, and School Racial Composition on Academic Attitudes and Beliefs among Black Youth
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110191 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 672
Abstract
It is important to consider racialized experiences and proximal indicators of academic success for Black youth when understanding the achievement gap. Acknowledging that racial discrimination is detrimental for the academic success of Black youth, this study extended previous research by examining the influence [...] Read more.
It is important to consider racialized experiences and proximal indicators of academic success for Black youth when understanding the achievement gap. Acknowledging that racial discrimination is detrimental for the academic success of Black youth, this study extended previous research by examining the influence of racial discrimination stress. Using hierarchical regression analysis and a moderated moderation model, this study examined racial discrimination stress and school belonging as predictors of academic attitudes and beliefs among 344 Black youth (M age = 15.6). Additionally, we examined the interactive effects of school belonging as a buffer for racial discrimination stress, with particular focus on majority White schools. Analyses revealed that school belonging was linked with academic competence, academic efficacy, and academic skepticism. Furthermore, school belonging buffered the impact of racial discrimination stress on academic efficacy among Black youth in majority White schools. These findings highlight the co-occurrence of risk and protective factors among Black youth and demonstrate the additive influence of school racial composition on academic attitudes and beliefs. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings demonstrate the crucial role of school context in understanding risk and protective factors for the academic attitudes and beliefs of Black youth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial Justice in Learning Contexts)
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Open AccessArticle
Unveiling Trends in Cultural Participation: The Case of Slovakia
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110190 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 630
Abstract
This paper explores the trends in participation in a variety of cultural activities in Slovakia. Although the research on cultural participation has thrived and there have been plenty of empirical studies published about the consumption of cultural products in different countries, there is [...] Read more.
This paper explores the trends in participation in a variety of cultural activities in Slovakia. Although the research on cultural participation has thrived and there have been plenty of empirical studies published about the consumption of cultural products in different countries, there is still a lack of comprehensive research from former post-communist countries. The paper aims to test the link between cultural participation and social and economic characteristics, which has previously been done in other international studies. The cluster analysis suggests four types of Slovak cultural participants—the heritage visitors, the omnivores, the popular genre visitors, and the inactive. The outcomes point to a strong relationship between cultural inactivity and heritage visits to socioeconomic status, while there is a weak relationship between highbrow cultural participation and the upper-class. The results challenge cultural policies to be adjusted for different groups of cultural participants with the objective of increasing the overall consumption of cultural goods in Slovakia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Codependency in the Relations of Couples of Imprisoned Women
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110189 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Female criminal behavior has sparked the interest of many researchers who, from different perspectives, have tried to identify what are the factors that lead them to commit a crime. Studies indicate that female affective bonds change into a potentiator of crime behavior and/or [...] Read more.
Female criminal behavior has sparked the interest of many researchers who, from different perspectives, have tried to identify what are the factors that lead them to commit a crime. Studies indicate that female affective bonds change into a potentiator of crime behavior and/or withdrawal of it. The objective of this study was to find out if the couple’s bonds (previous or during the prison) were codependent, and to analyze the possible relation between the latter and female crime. This qualitative study used mixed tools in a sample of 27 women in the Bucaramanga prison (Colombia). The I-CO instrument was applied analyzing the four codependency factors: (1) denial mechanisms; (2) incomplete identity development; (3) emotional repression and (4) rescue orientation. The qualitative data obtained through the in-depth interview and focus groups were also analyzed, showing mainly three emerging categories: (1) I did it for him; (2) Although he doesn’t love me; and (3) I preferred to remain silent. The results suggested the difficulty of leaving violent relationships and the possible interaction between codependency, violent partner relationships and female crime. This research raises the need to strengthen the empowerment of women inside and outside the prison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaving a Violent Relationship)
Open AccessArticle
Topic Modeling and Characterization of Hate Speech against Immigrants on Twitter around the Emergence of a Far-Right Party in Spain
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110188 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 761
Abstract
In this paper, we sought to model and characterize hate speech against immigrants on Twitter in Spain around the appearance of the far-right party Vox. More than 240,000 tweets that included the term ‘Vox’ between November 2018 and April 2019 were automatically collected [...] Read more.
In this paper, we sought to model and characterize hate speech against immigrants on Twitter in Spain around the appearance of the far-right party Vox. More than 240,000 tweets that included the term ‘Vox’ between November 2018 and April 2019 were automatically collected and analyzed. Only 1% of the sample included hate speech expressions. Within this subsample of 1977 messages, we found offenses (56%), incitements to hate (42%), and violent speech (2%). The most frequent terms used were classified into five categories: Spain, Immigration, Government, Islam, and Insults. The most common features were foul language, false or doubtful information, irony, distasteful expressions, humiliation or contempt, physical or psychological threats, and incitement to violence. Using unsupervised topic modeling, we found that the four underlying topics (control of illegal immigration, economic assistance for immigrants, consequences of illegal immigration, and Spain as an arrival point for African immigrants and Islamist terrorism) were similar to those in the discourse of Vox. We conclude that the hate speech against immigrants produced around Vox, and not necessarily by Vox, followed the general patterns of this type of speech detected in previous works, including Islamophobia, offensive language more often than violent language, and the refusal to offer public assistance to these collectives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Too Much of a Good Thing: Social Capital and Academic Stress in South Korea
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110187 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
In intense academic environments such as in South Korea, students experience extreme levels of academic stress. This stress peaks as students prepare for the college entrance exam in the final year of high school. Stress is associated with a host of negative outcomes, [...] Read more.
In intense academic environments such as in South Korea, students experience extreme levels of academic stress. This stress peaks as students prepare for the college entrance exam in the final year of high school. Stress is associated with a host of negative outcomes, and academic stress is the leading cause of suicidal ideation among youth in South Korea. Research suggests that in high-stress contexts such as this, social capital can improve academic success and mental health, while reducing risky or deviant behaviors. However, this research has predominantly focused on Western contexts. Because of the unique intensity of educational pursuits and intense investment in education by parents, South Korea provides a compelling case for research on the effects of family and school social capital on youth academic stress. Using data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 2753), we find that particular components of family and school social capital can both reduce and exacerbate academic stress. While measures of closeness and connection to parents reduced academic stress, school social capital had a limited impact on academic stress. Furthermore, there may be a limit to the effectiveness of social capital to help with academic stress before it becomes too much of a good thing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Social Capital)
Open AccessArticle
Coping Strategies, Immediate and Delayed Suggestibility among Children and Adolescents
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(11), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110186 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Knowing the factors that influence children’s suggestibility is important in implementing the psychological variables to be evaluated during a forensic evaluation. In the interrogative suggestibility model, coping strategies intervene in determining the acceptance or rejection of the leading question. However, studies that investigated [...] Read more.
Knowing the factors that influence children’s suggestibility is important in implementing the psychological variables to be evaluated during a forensic evaluation. In the interrogative suggestibility model, coping strategies intervene in determining the acceptance or rejection of the leading question. However, studies that investigated the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and coping strategies had mixed results. Avoidance-oriented coping is associated with high level to immediate suggestibility and problem-focused with low levels. In this study, we measured immediate suggestibility, delayed suggestibility, and coping strategies in a sample of 100 children. We hypothesized that avoidance-oriented coping strategies have a predictive effect in increasing immediate suggestibility levels, in particular avoidance-oriented coping oriented towards the tendency to accept leading questions. No effect of coping strategies was expected on delayed suggestibility. All children completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2), a non-verbal IQ test, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). Coping strategies were not related to delayed suggestibility, but avoidance-oriented coping correlated positively with immediate suggestibility. Avoidance-oriented coping emerged as the only significant predictive model for shift and total suggestibility, and its subscale distraction emerged as a predictor for Yield 1 and Yield 2. No predictors emerged for delayed suggestibility. Results are discussed for their theoretical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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