A New Approach to Teaching Emotional Design
2.1. Content Analysis
2.2. Semantic Network
2.3. Methodological Triangulation
3. Data Collection
4. Data Analysis
4.1. Meaning Units, Condensed Meaning Units, and Codes
4.2. Codes, Categories, and Themes
4.3. Semantic Network Analysis
5. Design Strategies and Evaluation
5.1. Design Strategies
- The most important design strategy is to learn in depth about traditional culture.This finding is based on the high-frequency codes associated with the code types “style” and “decoration” in the pleasant features. Both samples 18 and 19 were found to be highly influenced by the Buddhist culture; both were made in the Sui–Tang dynasties in the form of a lotus, which elicits positive emotions. The lotus has always been used as a decorative element in Buddhism.
- Artistic conception is the second general design strategy obtained in this research.On some of the samples used in the data collection (e.g., sample 1), there are images of incense being used in the form of a poetic scene (artistic conception). For the hill censers, artistic conception refers to the poetic space in which the hills and incense mist blend. Hence, the designer should consider using operation environments to complete the design.
- Being fashionable is often important for products, but not necessarily for historic products.Sometimes good designs can still appear to be fashionable even after a century. Samples 1 and 23 are old censers but still retain a fashionable look.
- The censer should be hill-shaped and avoid sharp edges.Both samples 11 and 12 have pointed protrusions on the lid, which made the subjects feel unsafe. Future products should make users feel safe. A round form was more likely to provoke a positive emotional association, unlike shapes with sharp edges.
- Bright colors evoke positive feelings in users.Samples 18 and 19 elicited positive comments for their pastel color. Samples 2, 5, 8, and 11 all have a dark tone, and evoked unpleasant images.
- The minimalist form is a geometrical aesthetic design method that is influenced by Modernism (1920s). Censer samples with a simplistic form are preferred according to the analysis results.
5.2. Evaluating Designs
- Written on the Wall at West Forest Temple/Artistic conceptionA scene involving the use of incense can evoke the feeling of a poetic space for users. This design utilized a Chinese poem as its inspiration to express an artistic conception of censer use. The poem illustrates a poetic mountain.
- Hill-censer/Hill shapeThe censer should look like a hill, according to the fourth design strategy. Hill-shaped censers are found to give a sense of pleasure. This design used the hill shape in the censer’s lid, which was surrounded by four layers of hills to create the scene.
- Good smell/Bright colorAll the subjects liked bright colors and thought bright colors could elicit pleasant feelings. The design color was bright pink and the designers used glass to create an even brighter feeling.
- Spring trees and evening clouds/FashionableUsing a fashionable design style is one of the significant design strategies suggested in this case study. This design depicted the living of a slow lifestyle, which is fashionable in modern society.
- Auspicious clouds/Simple form and traditional cultureThis design used a simplistic hill shape to express the characteristics of geometrical aesthetics. A traditional boshanlu was used and engraved with auspicious patterns (clouds). The design idea was inspired by the traditional Chinese pattern of auspicious clouds; those clouds were abstracted in the design.
- Mountain Yun/Simple form and hill shapeThe last design had a simple hill shape; the brass lid had a geometrical form; the design idea was based on Mountain Yun, a famous Chinese mountain.
- Code words from the emotional experience code type, since this research is about the emotional design.
- High-frequency code words found in the collected data.
Conflicts of Interest
- Barcus, Francis Earle. 1959. Communications Content: Analysis of the Research 1900–1958 (A Content Analysis of Content Analysis). Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA. [Google Scholar]
- Berelson, Bernard. 1952. Content Analysis in Communication Research. Glenoce: Free Press. [Google Scholar]
- Cavanagh, Stephen. 1997. Content analysis: Concepts, methods and applications. Nurse Researcher 4: 5–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cowie, Roddy, Ellen Douglas-Cowie, Susie Savvidou, Edelle McMahon, Martin Sawey, and Marc Schröder. 2000. “Feeltrace”: An instrument for recording perceived emotion in real time. ISCA Workshop Speech Emotion, 19–24. Available online: https://doi.org/citeulike-article-id:3721917 (accessed on 11 October 2020).
- Cupchik, Gerald C. 1999. Emotion and industrial design: Reconciling meanings and feelings. Paper presented at 1st International Conference on Design and Emotion, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, November 3–5. [Google Scholar]
- Denton, Howard, and Deana McDonagh. 2006. Products loved by users: Developing a tool to assist designers’ awareness of user emotional responses to products. Paper presented at 5th Conference on Design and Emotion 2006, Design and Emotion, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Product and Production Development, Göteborg, Sweden, September 27–29. [Google Scholar]
- Denzin, Norman. 1970. Strategies of Multiple Triangulation. The Research Act in Sociology: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Method. New York: Routledge, vol. 297, p. 313. [Google Scholar]
- Desmet, Pieter M. A., and Paul Hekkert. 2009. Special issue editorial: Design & emotion. International Journal of Design 3: 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Drieger, Philipp. 2013. Semantic Network Analysis as a Method for Visual Text Analytics. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences 79: 4–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Erickson, Susan N. 1992. Boshanlu: Mountain censers of the western Han period: A typological and iconological analysis. Archives of Asian Art 45: 6–28. [Google Scholar]
- Goertz, Gary. 2016. Multimethod Research. Security Studies 25: 3–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Graneheim, Ulla H., and Berit Lundman. 2004. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today 24: 105–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Greene, Jennifer C., and Valerie J. Caracelli. 1997. Defining and describing the paradigm issue in mixed-method evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation 74: 5–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hales, David. 2010. An Introduction to Triangulation. pp. 1–79. Available online: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/document/2010/10_4-Intro-to-triangulation-MEF.pdf (accessed on 10 October 2020).
- Han, Seunghee, Ki Joon Kim, and Jang Hyun Kim. 2017. Understanding nomophobia: Structural equation modeling and semantic network analysis of smartphone separation anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 20: 419–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Helbig, Hermann. 2006. Knowledge Representation and the Semantics of Natural Language. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer. [Google Scholar]
- Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang, and Sarah E. Shannon. 2005. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research 15: 1277–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, Shin Haeng, and Tae Yun Lim. 2019. Connective action and affective language: Computational text analysis of Facebook comments on social movements in South Korea. International Journal of Communication 13: 24. [Google Scholar]
- Lincoln, Yvonna S., and Egon G. Guba. 2000. The only generalization is: There is no generalization. Case Study Method, 27–44. [Google Scholar]
- Mathison, Sandra. 1988. Why triangulate? Educational Researcher 17: 13–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mitchell, Ellen S. 1986. Multiple triangulation: A methodology for nursing science. Advances in nursing science. Advances in Nursing Science 8: 18–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Morgan, David L. 1993. Qualitative Content Analysis: A Guide to Paths not Taken. Qualitative Health Research 3: 112–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Norman, Donald A. 2004. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. New York: Basic Civitas Books. [Google Scholar]
- Park, Namgyoo K., Monica Youngshin Chun, and Jinju Lee. 2016. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods. Creativity Research Journal 28: 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Quillian, M. Ross, and Marvin Minsky. 1968. Semantic Information Processing. Edited by M. Minsky. Cambridge: The MIT Press, pp. 227–70. [Google Scholar]
- Rawson, Jessica. 2006. The Chinese hill censer, boshan Iu: A note on origins, influences and meanings. Arts Asiatiques 61: 75–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rosengren, Karl Erik, ed. 1981. Advances in Content Analysis. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Incorporated, vol. 9. [Google Scholar]
- Sacharin, Vera, Katja Schlegel, and Klaus R. Scherer. 2012. Geneva emotion wheel rating study. In Center for Person, Kommunikation, Aalborg University, NCCR Affective Sciences. Aalborg: Aalborg University. [Google Scholar]
- Sáenz, David Cortés, Carlos Eduardo Díaz Domínguez, Pere Llorach-Massana, Ainoa Abella García, and Juan Luis Hernández Arellano. 2019. A series of recommendations for industrial design conceptualizing based on emotional design. In Managing Innovation in Highly Restrictive Environments. Cham: Springer, pp. 167–85. [Google Scholar]
- Stemler, S. 2001. An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment Research and Evaluation 7: 479–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tonkin-Crine, Sarah, Sibyl Anthierens, Kerenza Hood, Lucy Yardley, Jochen W. L. Cals, Nick A. Francis, Samuel Coenen, Alike W. van der Velden, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Carl Llor, and et al. 2016. Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: Achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation. Implementation Science 11: 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Van Gorp, Trevorvan, and Edie Adams. 2012. Why Design for Emotion? Design for Emotion. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Violante, Maria Grazia, Federica Marcolin, Enrico Vezzetti, Luca Ulrich, Gianluca Billia, and Luca Di Grazia. 2019. 3D facial expression recognition for defining users’ inner requirements-An emotional design case study. Applied Sciences 9: 2218. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Watson, David, Lee Anna Clark, and Auke Tellegen. 1988. Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54: 1063–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Weber, Robert Philip. 1990. Basic content analysis (No. 49). Los Angeles: Sage. [Google Scholar]
- Wu, H. 2010. Art in Etiquette—Chinese Ancient art History. Translated by Y. Zheng. Beijing: Shenghuo—Dushu—Xinzhi, Sanlian Press. [Google Scholar]
In that year, all courses were held online due to the impact of COVID-19.
This term refers to a scene being described in a literary or artistic work that reflects the sense and sensibility intended. The artistic conception is one of the basic categories of dialectics of art and is an important issue to study in aesthetics.
|Like||Q 1||Which samples do you like?|
|Q 2||Why do you like them?|
|Q 3||Could you talk more about each of these samples?|
|Dislike||Q 4||Which samples don’t you like?|
|Q 5||Why don’t you like them?|
|Q 6||Could you talk more about each of these samples?|
|Pleasant||Q 7||Do these samples give you a pleasant sensation?|
|Q 8||What kind of positive feelings do you receive from these samples?|
|Q 9||Could you explain in detail why you feel that when you see these samples?|
|Unpleasant||Q 10||Do these samples give you an unpleasant sensation?|
|Q 11||What kind of negative feelings do you receive from these samples?|
|Q 12||Could you explain in detail why you feel that when you see these samples?|
|No.||Meaning Units||Condensed Meaning Units||Codes|
|1||This incense burner looks like a lantern or a lamp.||resembles lantern or lamp||lantern lamp|
|2||The hill shape of the incense burner is the most prominent; it should look like the hill.||resembles hill||hill-shaped|
|3||The incense burner has rich decoration and bright color, which provides a pleasant experience.||rich decoration and bright color, provides a pleasant experience||rich|
|4||Although this censer was made thousands of years ago, it still feels modern and fashionable.||historic items with a modern feel||modern|
|5||The incense mist rises from the censer when I use the incense burner; I feel like I am in a fairyland.||feel like in a fairyland||fairyland|
|6||The incense burner has a fairy sculpture; I like the totem decoration of the god bird.||the totem decoration of the god bird||totem|
|7||The censer has an elegant color with Buddhist decorative elements.||elegant color with Buddhist decorative elements||elegant|
|8||I like the lotus form of the censer; the censer with a light hue makes it look nice.||lotus-shaped censer with a light hue||lotus|
|No.||Meaning Units||Condensed Meaning Units||Codes|
|1||The form of the censer’s lid is a bit irregular; the color is also too dark.||boring form and dark color||irregular|
|2||The censer looks like a plant pot.||plant pot||old fashioned|
|3||The form is too simple.||simple form||too simple|
|4||The surface is rough; it does not look like a censer and feels shabby.||rough surface and shabby feeling||rough|
|5||The form is weird, cusps of the censer’s lid make me feel uncomfortable.||weird and shape of the cusps create an uncomfortable feeling||weird|
|6||The craft is rough; the lid resembles a cave creating unpleasant ideas.||strange shaped lid creates unpleasant ideas||strange|
|7||Styling of the censer looks like a sad person; it makes me feel depressed.||strange styling with a depressing feeling||depressive|
|8||The form does not look like a hill at all.||it doesn’t resemble hills||non-hill-shaped|
|Pleasant olfactory experience||Classical|
|Emotional experience||Craft||Usability||Design style|
|Emotional experience and design style|
|Emotional experience||Craft||Usability||Design style|
|Emotional experience and design style|
|Fashionable 181||Pleasant 172||Bright 162||Vivid 158|
|Unique 150||Comfortable 141||Fairyland 136||Lively 130|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Yu, Q.; Nagai, Y. A New Approach to Teaching Emotional Design. Soc. Sci. 2020, 9, 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110210
Yu Q, Nagai Y. A New Approach to Teaching Emotional Design. Social Sciences. 2020; 9(11):210. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110210Chicago/Turabian Style
Yu, Qinghua, and Yukari Nagai. 2020. "A New Approach to Teaching Emotional Design" Social Sciences 9, no. 11: 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110210