Next Article in Journal
Study on Intensification Behavior of Bismuth Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching
Previous Article in Journal
Influences of the Heating and Cooling Rates on the Dissolution and Precipitation Behavior of a Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Superalloy
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2019, 9(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030361

Characterization of Double Leached Waelz Oxide for Identification of Fluoride Mineral

1
Division Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Removal and Recycling)
  |  
PDF [2150 KB, uploaded 27 March 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Double leached Waelz oxide (DLWO), with 76% zinc, is a secondary zinc containing raw materials obtained by the treatment of electric arc furnace dust. The content of fluoride in DLWO is still too high for direct leaching, as fluoride has a detrimental effect on electrowinning for zinc production. Knowledge of the characteristics of DLWO, and especially on how a fluoride mineral might exist, can contribute to further improvement of the selective leaching for the removal of fluoride. In this study, DLWO was characterized using analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), 19F liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (19F LS NMR), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and 19F solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (19F SS NMR). This study showed that DLWO mainly consisted of zincite (ZnO), cerussite (PbCO3) and a spinel containing zinc, iron and manganese. The fluoride mineral identified was calcium fluoride (CaF2). In SEM analysis, fluorine was found in larger grains together with calcium and oxygen, which was possibly calcium carbonate. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal recycling; zinc secondary dust material; characterization of double leached Waelz oxide; halogens; fluoride identification metal recycling; zinc secondary dust material; characterization of double leached Waelz oxide; halogens; fluoride identification
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sar, S.; Sundqvist Öqvist, L.; Sparrman, T.; Engström, F.; Samuelsson, C. Characterization of Double Leached Waelz Oxide for Identification of Fluoride Mineral. Metals 2019, 9, 361.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top