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Metals 2019, 9(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020192

Fluid Flow Turbulence in the Proximities of the Metal-Slag Interface in Ladle Stirring Operations

1
Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Instituto Politécnico Nacional-ESIQIE, Ed. 7, Colonia Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 Mexico City, Mexico
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4, Canada
3
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4, Canada
4
Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia, Metallurgy Graduate Center, Av. Tecnológico No. 1500, Morelia, C.P. 58120 Michoacán, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refining and Casting of Steel)
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Abstract

Three-phase interactions (metal-slag-argon) in ladle stirring operations have strong effects on the metal-slag mass transfer processes. Specifically, the thickness of the slag controls the fluid turbulence to an extent that once trespassing a critical thickness, increases of stirring strength no longer effect the flow. To analyze these conditions, a physical model considering the three phases was built to study liquid turbulence in the proximities of the metal-slag interface. A velocity probe placed close to the interface permitted the continuous monitoring and statistical analyses of any turbulence. The slag eye opening was found to be strongly dependent on the stirring conditions, and the mixing times decreased with thin slag thicknesses. Slag entrainment was enhanced with thick slag layers and high flow rates of the gas phase. A multiphase model was developed to simulate these results and was found to be a good agreement between experimental and numerical results. View Full-Text
Keywords: ladle stirring; turbulence; slag; interface; refining; mixing time; slag opening ladle stirring; turbulence; slag; interface; refining; mixing time; slag opening
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Calderón-Hurtado, F.A.; Morales Dávila, R.; Chattopadhyay, K.; García-Hernández, S. Fluid Flow Turbulence in the Proximities of the Metal-Slag Interface in Ladle Stirring Operations. Metals 2019, 9, 192.

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