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Metals 2018, 8(10), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100741

One Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnesium Silicate Impregnated Palm Shell Waste Activated Carbon for Copper Ion Removal

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Division of Policy Research, Green Technology Center, 173, Toegye-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul 04554, Korea
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 01897, Korea
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract

Magnesium silicate impregnated onto palm-shell waste activated carbon (PPAC) underwent mild hydrothermal treatment under one-pot synthesis, designated as PPAC-MC. Various impregnation ratios from 25 to 300% of MgSiO3 onto PPAC were tested. High levels of MgSiO3 led to high Cu(II) adsorption capacity. A ratio of 1:1 (PPAC-MS 100) was considered optimum because of its chemical stability in solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of PPAC-MS 100 for Cu(II) obtained by isotherm experiments was 369 mg g−1. The kinetic adsorption data fitted to pseudo-second-order model revealed as chemisorption. Increasing ionic strength reduced Cu(II) adsorption capacity due to the competition effect between Na+ and Cu2+. In addition, PPAC-MS 100 showed sufficient adsorption capacity for the removal of Zn(II), Al(III), Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(V), with adsorption capacities of 373 mg g−1, 244 mg g−1, 234 mg g−1, 562 mg g−1, 191 mg g−1, respectively. Three regeneration studies were also conducted. PPAC-MS was characterized using Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Overall, PPAC-MS 100 is a competitive adsorbent due to its high sorption capacity and sufficient regeneration rate, while remaining economical through the reuse of palm-shell waste materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: one-pot synthesis; palm shell waste activated carbon; magnesium silicate; adsorption; potential toxic metals one-pot synthesis; palm shell waste activated carbon; magnesium silicate; adsorption; potential toxic metals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Choong, C.E.; Lee, G.; Jang, M.; Park, C.M.; Ibrahim, S. One Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnesium Silicate Impregnated Palm Shell Waste Activated Carbon for Copper Ion Removal. Metals 2018, 8, 741.

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