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Article

High-Temperature Precipitation Design-of-Experiments Simulation in Low-Alloy Cr–Mo–Ni Hot Forging Steel

1
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Panamericana, Augusto Rodin 498, Ciudad de México 03920, Mexico
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-360, Coyoacán 04510, Mexico
3
CEIT-Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
4
Universidad de Navarra, Tecnun, Manuel Lardizabal 13, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bernd-Arno Behrens
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071054
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
The role of alloying elements such as Cr, Mo and Mn on low-alloy 8620 steel during hot forging operations is not yet clear, as, during deformation in the 1000~1100 °C temperature range, the austenite grain size remains small, ensuring the capacity of the forged part to be subsequently modified by surface hardening procedures. This work analyzed a deformed bar considering hardness at different geometry zones, along with SEM and TEM microstructures of previous austenite grains and lamellar martensite spacing. Moreover, Thermocalc simulations of M7C3, M23C6 and MnS precipitation were combined with Design of Experiments (DOE) in order to detect the sensitivity and significant variables. The values of the alloying elements’ percentages were drastically modified, as nominal values did not produce precipitation, and segregation at the austenite matrix may have been responsible for short-term, nanometric precipitates producing grain growth inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-alloy steel; precipitation; lamellar spacing; design of experiments low-alloy steel; precipitation; lamellar spacing; design of experiments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Lozada-Flores, O.; Gonzalez-Reyes, G.; Sanchez-Moreno, J.M. High-Temperature Precipitation Design-of-Experiments Simulation in Low-Alloy Cr–Mo–Ni Hot Forging Steel. Metals 2021, 11, 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071054

AMA Style

Gonzalez-Ojeda R, Lozada-Flores O, Gonzalez-Reyes G, Sanchez-Moreno JM. High-Temperature Precipitation Design-of-Experiments Simulation in Low-Alloy Cr–Mo–Ni Hot Forging Steel. Metals. 2021; 11(7):1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gonzalez-Ojeda, Roberto, Octavio Lozada-Flores, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Reyes, and Jose M. Sanchez-Moreno 2021. "High-Temperature Precipitation Design-of-Experiments Simulation in Low-Alloy Cr–Mo–Ni Hot Forging Steel" Metals 11, no. 7: 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071054

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