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Sports, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 24 articles

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19 pages, 1659 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Specific Mood Profile Clusters among Elite and Youth Athletes at a Brazilian Sports Club
by Izabel Cristina Provenza de Miranda Rohlfs, Franco Noce, Carolina Wilke, Victoria R. Terry, Renée L. Parsons-Smith and Peter C. Terry
Sports 2024, 12(7), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070195 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Those responsible for elite and youth athletes are increasingly aware of the need to balance the quest for superior performance with the need to protect the physical and psychological wellbeing of athletes. As a result, regular assessment of risks to mental health is [...] Read more.
Those responsible for elite and youth athletes are increasingly aware of the need to balance the quest for superior performance with the need to protect the physical and psychological wellbeing of athletes. As a result, regular assessment of risks to mental health is a common feature in sports organisations. In the present study, the Brazil Mood Scale (BRAMS) was administered to 898 athletes (387 female, 511 male, age range: 12–44 years) at a leading sports club in Rio de Janeiro using either “past week” or “right now” response timeframes. Using seeded k-means cluster analysis, six distinct mood profile clusters were identified, referred to as the iceberg, surface, submerged, shark fin, inverse iceberg, and inverse Everest profiles. The latter three profiles, which are associated with varying degrees of increased risk to mental health, were reported by 238 athletes (26.5%). The prevalence of these three mood clusters varied according to the response timeframe (past week > right now) and the sex of the athletes (female > male). The prevalence of the iceberg profile varied by athlete sex (male > female), and age (12–17 years > 18+ years). Findings supported use of the BRAMS as a screening tool for the risk of psychological issues among athletes in Brazilian sports organisations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport Psychology)
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15 pages, 1795 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Key Factors on Training Days within a Standard Microcycle for Young Sub-Elite Football Players: A Principal Component Approach
by José Eduardo Teixeira, Luís Branquinho, Ricardo Ferraz, Ryland Morgans, Samuel Encarnação, Joana Ribeiro, Pedro Afonso, Nemat Ruzmetov, Tiago M. Barbosa, António M. Monteiro and Pedro Forte
Sports 2024, 12(7), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070194 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Utilizing techniques for reducing multivariate data is essential for comprehensively understanding the variations and relationships within both biomechanical and physiological datasets in the context of youth football training. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the primary factors influencing training sessions [...] Read more.
Utilizing techniques for reducing multivariate data is essential for comprehensively understanding the variations and relationships within both biomechanical and physiological datasets in the context of youth football training. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the primary factors influencing training sessions within a standard microcycle among young sub-elite football players. A total of 60 male Portuguese youth sub-elite footballers (15.19 ± 1.75 years) were continuous monitored across six weeks during the 2019–2020 in-season, comprising the training days from match day minus (MD-) 3, MD-2, and MD-1. The weekly training load was collected by an 18 Hz global positioning system (GPS), 1 Hz heart rate (HR) monitors, the perceived exertion (RPE) and the total quality recovery (TQR). A principal component approach (PCA) coupled with a Monte Carlo parallel analysis was applied to the training datasets. The training datasets were condensed into three to five principal components, explaining between 37.0% and 83.5% of the explained variance (proportion and cumulative) according to the training day (p < 0.001). Notably, the eigenvalue for this study ranged from 1.20% to 5.21% within the overall training data. The PCA analysis of the standard microcycle in youth sub-elite football identified that, across MD-3, MD-2, and MD-1, the first was dominated by the covered distances and sprinting variables, while the second component focused on HR measures and training impulse (TRIMP). For the weekly microcycle, the first component continued to emphasize distance and intensity variables, with the ACC and DEC being particularly influential, whereas the second and subsequent components included HR measures and perceived exertion. On the three training days analyzed, the first component primarily consisted of variables related to the distance covered, running speed, high metabolic load, sprinting, dynamic stress load, accelerations, and decelerations. The high intensity demands have a high relative weight throughout the standard microcycle, which means that the training load needs to be carefully monitored and managed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connecting Health and Performance with Sports Sciences)
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11 pages, 491 KiB  
Article
Changes in Physical Fitness in Youth Padel Players during One Season: A Cohort Study
by Sofia Ryman Augustsson, M. Charlotte Olsson and Emma Haglund
Sports 2024, 12(7), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070193 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 211
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness performance, which is related to the strength and power of the lower extremities and core, as well as lateral agility, changes across 20 weeks of in-season training in youth female and male [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness performance, which is related to the strength and power of the lower extremities and core, as well as lateral agility, changes across 20 weeks of in-season training in youth female and male padel players. This study was conducted using a prospective cohort design on 16 Swedish high school padel players aged between 15 and 18 years old. The players were assessed at baseline with five tests of their physical fitness and followed prospectively, with the registration of their training load for 20 weeks, and then assessed at a follow-up, approximately five months later. The players increased their performance in all tests (p ≤ 0.02). The mean improvement in their Isometric squat test performance was 20% for peak force, 18% for relative strength value and 69% for average rate of force development. Their improvement in the squat jump test performance was 9%, whereas the improvement in their countermovement jump test was 6%. For the 30 second sit-up test, an improvement of 14% was observed. Improvements were also noted for the 30 second side hop test performance on both the right (9%) and left leg (11%). The effect size ranged from 0.31 to 1, respectively, for the tests, representing a small to large effect. The data from this study suggest that an improvement in physical fitness performance can be obtained during 20 weeks of padel training. Full article
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16 pages, 1010 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Mental Fatigue on Anaerobic Power and Power Endurance Performance
by Matthew P. Gonzalez, Denver M. Y. Brown, Isabella M. Swafford, Bryce Summerville, Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar and Sandor Dorgo
Sports 2024, 12(7), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070192 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Mental fatigue has been studied extensively in relation to its impact on aerobic-, strength-, and motor-based tasks, but anaerobic power-based tasks have received limited attention. Interdisciplinary research investigating the underlying mechanisms by which mental fatigue influences physical performance has been called for. In [...] Read more.
Mental fatigue has been studied extensively in relation to its impact on aerobic-, strength-, and motor-based tasks, but anaerobic power-based tasks have received limited attention. Interdisciplinary research investigating the underlying mechanisms by which mental fatigue influences physical performance has been called for. In two studies, the effects of mental fatigue on maximal power jump and endurance jump performance as well as kinetics and kinematics during jump performance were examined. Samples of collegiate volleyball players (Study 1; N = 14) and recreationally active students (Study 2; N = 27) completed two 30 min experimental manipulations (high vs. low cognitive control exertion) before performing three maximal power squat jumps followed by 15 repeated countermovement jumps, with measurements of kinetics and kinematics. For Study 1, the maximal power performance was significantly lower under a mentally fatigued condition, but no differences were observed for repeated jump performance, which may have been attributable to alterations in jump mechanics. For Study 2, no between-condition differences were observed for the maximal power performance, although repeated jump performance was significantly lower under a mentally fatigued condition. Collectively, these findings suggest that the impacts of mental fatigue on power-based performance tasks may depend on the task demands as well as the training status of the individual. Full article
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12 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Engagement in Transformational Leadership by Teachers Influences the Levels of Self-Esteem, Motor Self-Efficacy, Enjoyment, and Intention to Be Active in Physical Education Students
by Carolina Sánchez-García, Rafael E. Reigal, Jacobo Hernández-Martos, Antonio Hernández-Mendo and Veronica Morales-Sánchez
Sports 2024, 12(7), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070191 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
In the school context, the teacher–student interaction style plays a pivotal role in ensuring optimal adolescent functioning. Over recent years, the significance of transformational teacher leadership in fostering student engagement and positive development has been underscored. This study aimed to examine the correlations [...] Read more.
In the school context, the teacher–student interaction style plays a pivotal role in ensuring optimal adolescent functioning. Over recent years, the significance of transformational teacher leadership in fostering student engagement and positive development has been underscored. This study aimed to examine the correlations between transformational leadership and adolescent self-esteem, motor self-efficacy, enjoyment in physical education classes, and intention for future physical activity. This research used an associative and predictive strategy. A total of 429 adolescents from Málaga, aged between 14 and 16 years (M = 14.97; SD = 0.85), participated in this research, which employed an associative, comparative, and predictive approach. The Transformational Teaching Questionnaire (TTQ), Motor Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Intrinsic Satisfaction in Sport Instrument (SSI-EF), and Intention of Being Physically Active Scale (MIFA) were utilized for variable assessment. Correlation, Multiple Regression, and cluster analyses revealed statistically significant correlations between transformational leadership and self-esteem, motor self-efficacy, enjoyment, and future activity intention. Specifically, it was revealed that motivational inspiration predicts self-esteem, motor self-efficacy, enjoyment, and intention for physical activity, whereas intellectual stimulation predicts motor self-efficacy, enjoyment, and intention for physical activity. Notably, the transformational leadership factors of intellectual stimulation and motivational inspiration were observed to predict scores across other variables, particularly enjoyment in physical education classes, both overall and by gender. These findings suggest that transformational leadership in physical education classes can significantly enhance student experiences, thereby promoting adherence to physical activity and healthy lifestyles among adolescents. Full article
9 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Influence and Relationship of Pain on Lumbar Biomechanics in a Young Adult Population with Non-Specific Low Back Pain
by Sagrario Pérez-de la Cruz
Sports 2024, 12(7), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070190 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 260
Abstract
The therapeutic actions indicated for low back pain, in addition to physiotherapy, include mobilization of the affected segment, as it is assumed that a loss of mobility may contribute to a patient’s pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence [...] Read more.
The therapeutic actions indicated for low back pain, in addition to physiotherapy, include mobilization of the affected segment, as it is assumed that a loss of mobility may contribute to a patient’s pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of back pain on the degrees of spinal mobility in young adults. Eighty-six volunteers participated in the study. Fingertip-to-floor distance, Schöber’s test, the fingertip-to-floor lateral flexion test, GHQ-12, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and the STarT Back Screening Tool were used. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (pain and no pain) in degrees of spinal flexion (Schöber’s test and side flexion) showing greater mobility in the group with pain. However, the group with low back pain showed less rotational mobility. The presence or absence of back pain had an impact on the individual’s sporting practice and perception of pain, and they were able to carry out their sporting activities normally. Young adults with idiopathic low back pain showed some statistically significant differences in relation to the mobility of the spine in the different planes of movement (flexion and side flexion), conditioning their quality of life and sports practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physiotherapy on Sports-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders)
12 pages, 2684 KiB  
Article
Physiological Responses in Trail Runners during a Maximal Test with Different Weighted-Vest Loads
by Germán Jiménez-Redondo, Bruno Castro-Frecha, Francisco Javier Martínez-Noguera, Pedro E. Alcaraz and Cristian Marín-Pagán
Sports 2024, 12(7), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070189 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 270
Abstract
During some trail running races, athletes have to carry hydration support, food, and technical and safety equipment, which generates an additional load that must be mobilized during the race. The aim of the present study was to determine the physiological responses to overload [...] Read more.
During some trail running races, athletes have to carry hydration support, food, and technical and safety equipment, which generates an additional load that must be mobilized during the race. The aim of the present study was to determine the physiological responses to overload running and the effect they may have on metabolic zones. Seventeen well-trained male trail runners (n = 17) completed three maximal treadmill tests with weighted vests at 0%, 5%, and 10% of their body mass (L0, L5, and L10). Their gas exchange was monitored to assess their ventilatory thresholds 1 (VT1) and 2 (VT2), maximal fat oxidation zone (FatMax), and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Their heart rate (HR), power, and velocity (V) were tracked to compare their behavior. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences in the V (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.4620) as a limitation for reaching the peak velocity (Vpeak), with a significant decrease in the Vpeak with the L10 compared to the L0 (p = 0.002) and L5 (p = 0.004). In addition, one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in the peak absolute power (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.468) among the groups, detecting higher power production between the L10 and L0 (p < 0.001) and between the L10 and L5 (p = 0.015). Loads higher than L5 could generated important physiological and mechanical modifications, while a load of L5 managed to maintain the working conditions without overloading. These insights shed light on nuanced strategies for optimizing performance and endurance, offering valuable considerations for athletes seeking to enhance their training regimens during overload conditions. Full article
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11 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
Muscle Changes during Direct Attack under Different Conditions in Elite Wheelchair Fencing
by Julio Martín-Ruiz, Jorge Alarcón-Jiménez, Nieves de Bernardo, Ignacio Tamarit-Grancha, Xavier Iglesias and Laura Ruiz-Sanchis
Sports 2024, 12(7), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070188 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Wheelchair fencing is a medium-distance combat sport in which the wheelchair is fixed to the floor. This requires a maximum concentration and gestational speed. Refined techniques and fatigue tolerance are essential to achieve competitive results. Aim: The main objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Wheelchair fencing is a medium-distance combat sport in which the wheelchair is fixed to the floor. This requires a maximum concentration and gestational speed. Refined techniques and fatigue tolerance are essential to achieve competitive results. Aim: The main objective of this study was to measure the speed and muscular participation of a direct attack gesture with and without fatigue in a sample of elite wheelchair fencers. Methods: The maximal isometric force, gestural speed, and resistance to gestural velocity were estimated in 10 elite performed direct fencers. Results: The results revealed that sitting height and wingspan were important factors in achieving the highest speed, especially in women (r = 0.9; p = 0.07). Other factors, such as the elbow angle where the closed position was better, affected muscle contraction in both categories of athletes (p = 0.01). The onset of fatigue was earlier in category B than in category A, with greater variation in direct attack movement. The results highlight the importance of analyzing direct attacks for the best application of quick force, speed, and muscle participation, as well as identifying the onset of technical deterioration to devise a competitive strategy. These parameters may allow for precise design of conditioning sessions for elite wheelchair shooters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
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12 pages, 898 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hand-Grip-Determined Dynapenia in the Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Do-Youn Lee
Sports 2024, 12(7), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070187 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Dynapenia refers to muscle weakness related to aging and is defined as a loss of muscle strength associated with muscle quality. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of dynapenia and associated risk factors by gender and age in domestic [...] Read more.
Dynapenia refers to muscle weakness related to aging and is defined as a loss of muscle strength associated with muscle quality. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of dynapenia and associated risk factors by gender and age in domestic adults and to provide customized basic data for the prevention of dynapenia through its management. Based on the data from 2014 to 2019 of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey, 20,950 adults over the age of 20 who participated in grip strength tests and health surveys were selected as participants. Factors related to dynapenia were analyzed using complex sample multilogistic regression analysis. The prevalence of dynapenia in domestic adults was 6.3%, 4.1% in men, and 8.7% in women. Prevalence in the second decade was 5.3%, in the third decade was 3.2%, in the fourth decade was 3.3%, in the fifth decade was 4.8%, in the sixth decade was 8.9%, and was 24.6% for participants in their seventh decade or beyond. Among the factors related to dynapenia, age, BMI, and alcohol status were common in both men and women; education level, HDL-C, and resistance exercise were common in men; and high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and aerobic exercise were common in women. Our findings indicate that several factors are associated with dynapenia, which should be considered as potential targets for interventions focused on both individual and public health measures. Full article
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14 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
Protein and Leucine Requirements for Maximal Muscular Development and Athletic Performance Are Achieved with Completely Plant-Based Diets Modeled to Meet Energy Needs in Adult Male Rugby Players
by David M. Goldman, Cassandra B. Warbeck and Micaela C. Karlsen
Sports 2024, 12(7), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070186 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Rugby athletes consume large amounts of animal protein in accordance with conventional dietary guidance to increase muscle mass and strength. This misaligns with national dietary guidelines, which suggest limiting meat consumption for chronic disease prevention. The ability of completely plant-based diets to satisfy [...] Read more.
Rugby athletes consume large amounts of animal protein in accordance with conventional dietary guidance to increase muscle mass and strength. This misaligns with national dietary guidelines, which suggest limiting meat consumption for chronic disease prevention. The ability of completely plant-based diets to satisfy the nutritional needs of rugby players has not been explored. This study scaled nutrient data from a large population consuming completely plant-based diets with limited supplemental protein to meet the calorie requirements of adult male rugby athletes to assess whether protein and leucine recommendations for muscular development and athletic performance would be achieved. Calorie requirements were estimated from research that employed the doubly labeled water method, and dietary data from the Adventist Health Study-2 were scaled to this level. The modeled protein level was 1.68 g/kg/day, which meets recommendations for maximal gains in muscle mass, strength, and athletic performance. The modeled leucine level was 2.9 g/meal for four daily meals, which exceeds the threshold proposed to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis in young men. These results indicate that consuming large portions of completely plant-based meals can satisfy protein and leucine requirements for maximal muscular development and athletic performance in adult male rugby athletes while aligning with public health recommendations. Full article
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13 pages, 434 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Anthropometric Variables on the Performance of Elite Traditional Rowers
by Arkaitz Castañeda-Babarro, Patxi León-Guereño, Aitor Viribay, Borja Gutiérrez-Santamaría, Iker López and Juan Mielgo-Ayuso
Sports 2024, 12(7), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070185 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Athletes’ anthropometry, and especially their body composition, plays an important role in sport performance in general and in Trainera rowing in particular. Rowers’ anthropometric and performance profiles may vary according to their position in the boat. The objectives of this study were to [...] Read more.
Athletes’ anthropometry, and especially their body composition, plays an important role in sport performance in general and in Trainera rowing in particular. Rowers’ anthropometric and performance profiles may vary according to their position in the boat. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between anthropometry, physical performance, physiological variables, and elite male rowers’ boat positions. Twenty elite male traditional rowers were assessed and categorized according to their boat position: either in the middle of the boat (M) (n = 9) or in the bow and stern positions (BS) (n = 11). Anthropometric measurements and body composition were obtained for each rower, and physical performance was measured by a 45-s supramaximal rowing test and a VO2max incremental test on a Concept II rowing ergometer. The results showed that the rowers in the middle were taller (186.6 ± 4.9 cm), and significant differences were also found between the two groups according to body mass (BS 72.3 ± 3.8 vs. M 85.4 ± 4.3) and peak power (BS 641.5 ± 84 vs. M 737 ± 47.1), mean power (BS 538.5 ± 48.4 vs. M 604.1 ± 42.3), and physiological parameters (p < 0.05), VO2max (BS 66.5 ± 4.9 vs. M 59.3 ± 6.7). It can be concluded that height could be associated with elite rowers’ performance and that a lower body mass index is related to better performance in bow and stern positions. Full article
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14 pages, 6016 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Expression of Inflammatory Genes Induced by Chronic Exercise in the Adipose Tissue: Differences by Sex
by Paula Sanchis, Aida Ezequiel-Rodriguez, Antonio Jesús Sánchez-Oliver, Walter Suarez-Carmona, Sergio Lopez-Martín, Francisco José García-Muriana and José Antonio González-Jurado
Sports 2024, 12(7), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070184 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 666
Abstract
The impact of obesity on adipose tissue function is well acknowledged, but the role of physical exercise in regulating inflammatory markers and gene expression in obese individuals remains uncertain. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on inflammatory gene expression [...] Read more.
The impact of obesity on adipose tissue function is well acknowledged, but the role of physical exercise in regulating inflammatory markers and gene expression in obese individuals remains uncertain. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue and to explore sex differences in response to exercise. The study involved 29 obese participants (13 men, 16 women) aged 38 to 54 years with a mean BMI of 36.05 ± 4.99 kg/m2. Participants underwent an 8-week concurrent training program comprising three weekly sessions of ~60 min each. The sessions included joint mobility exercises, cardiovascular activation, and cardiorespiratory resistance exercises at medium to low intensity. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was performed for gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The study demonstrated that chronic exercise modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, particularly ADIPOR2 (p = 0.028), leptin (p = 0.041), and IFNg (p = 0.040) (downregulated). Interestingly, regardless of sex, the exercise programs had an independent effect on pro-inflammatory genes. Overall, this study provides insight into the role of chronic exercise in modulating adipose tissue gene expression in obese individuals. Further research involving both sexes is recommended to tailor exercise interventions for better outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connecting Health and Performance with Sports Sciences)
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11 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
Detraining’s Effects on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Maximal and Explosive Strength in Army Soldiers: Does Age Matter?
by Alexis Arce-Álvarez, Ángelo Zaio, Camila Salazar-Ardiles, Cristian Álvarez, Pablo Merino-Muñoz, Manuel Vasquez-Muñoz, Mikel Izquierdo, Mauricio Castro and David C. Andrade
Sports 2024, 12(7), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070183 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Purpose: This study investigated the impact of four weeks of age-dependent detraining on army soldiers’ cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal and explosive strength. Methods: Fourteen volunteer tactical athletes participated, divided into two age groups (20 to 29 and 30 to 40 years). Before and [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study investigated the impact of four weeks of age-dependent detraining on army soldiers’ cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal and explosive strength. Methods: Fourteen volunteer tactical athletes participated, divided into two age groups (20 to 29 and 30 to 40 years). Before and after the detraining period, we assessed their anthropometric measurements (weight, height, body mass index, fat mass, and fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] and ventilatory thresholds [VT1 and VT2]), and kinematic properties during a single-leg counter-moving jump (CMJ) test for both the dominant and non-dominant legs. Two-way ANOVA followed by the Holm–Sidak post hoc test was used. Results: The anthropometric and cardiovascular variables did not show significant differences between the groups. However, both groups exhibited a significantly reduced maximum time and speed at the VO2max. Furthermore, the flight time and maximum height during the CMJ significantly decreased in the non-dominant leg for both age groups. Notably, the dominant leg’s concentric impulse (CI) significantly reduced during the CMJ, but this effect was observed only in the 30–40 age group. There were significant differences between the two age groups. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that four weeks of detraining negatively impacts aerobic fitness and muscular strength, independently of age. However, the dominant leg may be more susceptible to detraining effects in army soldiers aged 30–40. Furthermore, as a perspective, our results strongly suggest that a detraining period could affect successful missions (aerobic performance deterioration), as well as promote a muscle imbalance between the legs, which could encourage muscle injuries and endanger combat missions. Full article
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13 pages, 699 KiB  
Systematic Review
Benefits of Judo Practice for Individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review
by Gaston Descamps, Maria João Campos, Terry Rizzo, Viktorija Pečnikar Oblak and Alain Guy Massart
Sports 2024, 12(7), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070182 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1538
Abstract
This systematic literature review evaluates the benefits of judo practice designed for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Intellectual Developmental Disorders (IDDs), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review adheres to the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, focusing on the physical, social, [...] Read more.
This systematic literature review evaluates the benefits of judo practice designed for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Intellectual Developmental Disorders (IDDs), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review adheres to the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, focusing on the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive benefits of judo. A comprehensive search across databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, B-On, and Scopus, was conducted, and relevant studies were selected based on explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixteen intervention studies were included, which contributed to a detailed understanding of the impact of judo. The results indicated significant benefits in terms of physical activity, social interactions, emotional well-being, and cognitive functions among participants. A synthesis of results is presented, showing the overall positive effect of judo practice. This review highlights the potential of judo as supportive therapy for individuals with NDDs, advocating its inclusion in therapeutic and educational settings. Limitations due to study heterogeneity and the need for more randomized controlled trials are also discussed. Full article
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13 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Social and Emotional Skills in at-Risk Adolescents through Participation in Sports
by Andreia P. Teques, Rita F. de Oliveira, Michala Bednarikova, Maurizio Bertollo, Grzegorz Botwina, Anastasiya Khomutova, Hamit Emir Turam, İlknur Dinç, Marcos López-Flores and Pedro Teques
Sports 2024, 12(7), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070181 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 297
Abstract
(1) Background: Adolescents who are under the care of child and youth institutions are vulnerable due to factors that can include disruption to family structure or education and adverse experiences. They often experience poor or unstable support systems, leaving them at risk of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Adolescents who are under the care of child and youth institutions are vulnerable due to factors that can include disruption to family structure or education and adverse experiences. They often experience poor or unstable support systems, leaving them at risk of delinquency. In this context, sports engagement may provide a stable structure and have positive effects in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding social and emotional skills among at-risk adolescents, with a specific focus on their engagement in sports. (2) Methods: Ninety-six adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (66 female, 30 male), residing in child and youth care institutions across Italy, Portugal, the UK, and Turkey, participated in this study. The participants were divided into 14 focus groups, each with six to eight participants of similar ages. (3) Results: Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: Emotional causes of behavioral problems; Emotional skills to regain control; Social support makes sports worthwhile; Sport as a socio-emotional resource. (4) Conclusions: The study findings highlight that although sports create many challenging emotional situations for these adolescents, they also provides resources that may help them cope with their emotions within and beyond sports. Full article
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10 pages, 262 KiB  
Review
Physical Exercise and Executive Function in the Pediatric Overweight and Obesity Population: A Systematic Review Protocol
by Enrique Cerda-Vega, Nuria Pérez-Romero, Sergio Araya Sierralta, Antonio Hernández-Mendo, Rafael E. Reigal, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cristian Martínez-Salazar, Rodrigo Campos-Jara, Cristián Arellano-Roco, Christian Campos-Jara, Victoria Hernández-Cifuentes and Falonn Contreras-Osorio
Sports 2024, 12(7), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070180 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Background: Executive function is often altered in overweight/obese children and adolescents, which has a negative impact on their learning and daily life. Furthermore, research has shown the benefits of physical exercise in improving cognitive performance. This protocol aims to define in a detailed [...] Read more.
Background: Executive function is often altered in overweight/obese children and adolescents, which has a negative impact on their learning and daily life. Furthermore, research has shown the benefits of physical exercise in improving cognitive performance. This protocol aims to define in a detailed and structured manner the procedures that will be conducted for the development of a systematic review of the literature aimed at evaluating the effects of physical exercise on the executive functions of children and adolescents (≤18 years) with overweight/obesity in comparison with peers in control groups. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and EBSCO databases will be searched for longitudinal studies that have at least one experimental and one control group using pre- and post-intervention measures of executive function, including working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility in the pediatric population who are overweight or obese. The risk of bias and certainty of evidence will be assessed using Cochrane RoB2 and GRADE, respectively. Furthermore, Der Simonian–Laird’s random effects model will be employed for meta-analyses. The effect sizes will be calculated with 95% confidence intervals, and p values < 0.05 indicate statistical significance for each dimension of executive function in the different groups before and after the intervention. Discussion: The results of this review may be useful for education and health professionals to design treatment plans for overweight/obese children and adolescents, offering potential benefits related to the learning and cognitive abilities of this population. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42023391420. Full article
18 pages, 2932 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning on Sport-Specific Performance in Highly Trained Taekwondo Athletes
by Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Cristiano Arruda Gomes Flôr, Amanda Isadora Santos Ribeiro, Paulo Henrique Caldeira Mesquita, Emerson Franchini and Gilberto Candido Laurentino
Sports 2024, 12(7), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070179 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which involves episodes of blood flow restriction followed by reperfusion, has uncertain effects on athletes. Additionally, employing sports-specific tests that are highly familiar to athletes can enhance methodological rigor in determining IPC’s effects on taekwondo performance. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which involves episodes of blood flow restriction followed by reperfusion, has uncertain effects on athletes. Additionally, employing sports-specific tests that are highly familiar to athletes can enhance methodological rigor in determining IPC’s effects on taekwondo performance. This study aimed to investigate IPC’s influence on taekwondo athletes’ performance through two studies. To induce occlusion in both studies, the cuff was inflated to an individualized occlusion pressure established for each athlete’s lower limb, with four cycles of occlusion lasting five minutes each, alternated with five-minute reperfusion intervals. Both traditional frequentist statistics and Bayesian analysis were employed. In the first study, eleven high-level athletes were subjected to either IPC or a placebo (SHAM) procedure on both legs, followed by performing countermovement jumps (CMJs) and a specific taekwondo endurance test. However, no significant differences were observed in taekwondo endurance performance or CMJ between the IPC and SHAM conditions. The second study involved fourteen elite athletes who underwent the same IPC or SHAM conditions, performing CMJ and three bouts of the Multiple Frequency Speed of Kick test (FSKTmult) in three blocks, each separated by approximately thirty minutes. Again, the results indicated no significant differences in FSKTmult measures or CMJ performance between the two conditions. In conclusion, IPC did not significantly affect neuromuscular (in both studies), endurance (in the first study), or anaerobic (in the second study) performance in these taekwondo athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
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15 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Body Mass Index Trends for the Top Five Finishers in Men’s Grand Tour and Monument Cycling Events from 1994–2023: Implications for Athletes and Sporting Stakeholders
by Alexander Smith, Helen Wyler, Moritz van Wijnkoop, Jill Colangelo, Michael Liebrenz and Anna Buadze
Sports 2024, 12(7), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070178 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Weight-related issues can be prevalent in elite-level sports, especially in men’s road cycling, where riders may exhibit harmful behaviours, with potentially adverse outcomes for mental and physical health. This study investigated Body Mass Index (BMI) values amongst the top five finishers in the [...] Read more.
Weight-related issues can be prevalent in elite-level sports, especially in men’s road cycling, where riders may exhibit harmful behaviours, with potentially adverse outcomes for mental and physical health. This study investigated Body Mass Index (BMI) values amongst the top five finishers in the three Grand Tours and the five Monuments races between 1994 and 2023 to assess longitudinal patterns. Publicly available height and weight figures were sourced from ProCyclingStats and BMI scores were calculated for n = 154 and n = 255 individual athletes for the Grand Tours and Monuments, respectively. Two analyses were conducted with correlations and ANOVAs: the first included the BMIs of all top-five finishes and the second focussed on the BMIs of new top-five entrants. The results from both analyses revealed consistent mean BMI decreases over the years and larger effect sizes were apparent in the Grand Tours compared to the Monuments. Although lower BMIs are associated with certain performance advantages, these declining trajectories suggest a need for enhanced awareness in the cycling community and possible regulatory measures and educational programmes to promote the sustainable wellbeing of riders. This may be particularly pertinent given the wider evidence of unhealthy weight-related attitudes and behaviours throughout the sport. Full article
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20 pages, 1807 KiB  
Systematic Review
Intergenerational Judo: Synthesising Evidence- and Eminence-Based Knowledge on Judo across Ages
by Simone Ciaccioni, Andrea Perazzetti, Angela Magnanini, Tibor Kozsla, Laura Capranica and Mojca Doupona
Sports 2024, 12(7), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070177 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
In alignment with European policies regarding intergenerational sports, this study seeks to integrate existing evidence- (i.e., umbrella review) and eminence- (i.e., international validated educational courses for coaches) based knowledge on judo training across the lifespan. For evidence knowledge, searches of the Google Scholar, [...] Read more.
In alignment with European policies regarding intergenerational sports, this study seeks to integrate existing evidence- (i.e., umbrella review) and eminence- (i.e., international validated educational courses for coaches) based knowledge on judo training across the lifespan. For evidence knowledge, searches of the Google Scholar, ISI-WoS, PubMed, and Scopus databases (PROSPERO ID: CRD42024535420) for studies focused on training youth and older judo practitioners, with no time restriction up to April 2024, were conducted. This resulted in 16 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, with an “excellent” (n = 6), “good” (n = 7), and “fair” (n = 3) quality according to the NIH tool. With a large sample size (n = 372,655), the reviews focused on wellbeing (n = 9; bone status, injuries, and psychophysical effects) and performance (n = 7; athlete success, combat time, rapid weight loss, and the Special Judo Fitness Test), examining athletic levels (novices to Olympics), sex, and age (children to older adults). For eminence knowledge, the International Judo Federation Academy courses encompassed the “Undergraduate Certificate as Judo Instructor” (UCJI), which provides a comprehensive structure for teaching judo, including techniques, moral code, roles, responsibilities, refereeing, safety, and age-specific belt examination requirements and progression, and the “Educating Judo Coaches for Older Practitioners” (EdJCO) curricula, which provide theoretical and applied modules (e.g., ageing, health, and organisation) to train older judo practitioners. The findings were summarised in a framework, highlighting the most relevant aspects of intergenerational judo programmes (i.e., aims, key characteristics, coaches’ roles, barriers, and facilitators). To develop a comprehensive educational intergenerational judo methodology, future research should examine coaches’ and practitioners’ opinions on intergenerational judo activities carried out in different national contexts. Full article
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20 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
The Arabic Version of Compulsive Exercise Test among Saudi Population; Translation and Validation
by Nouf A. Alghamdi, Madhawi M. Aldhwayan, Reem S. Albassam, Rana F. Asseri, Aljouhara F. Alyousef, Reem K. Naaman, Manar A. Alzuman, Aseel J. Almukhlifi and Mohammed I. Alquraishi
Sports 2024, 12(7), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070176 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Compulsive exercise is a condition characterized by uncontrollable exercise behaviour that may lead to severe and harmful physical and psychological consequences. Indeed, compulsive exercise is among the early symptoms of eating disorders that may affect different age groups. Globally and among Arab countries, [...] Read more.
Compulsive exercise is a condition characterized by uncontrollable exercise behaviour that may lead to severe and harmful physical and psychological consequences. Indeed, compulsive exercise is among the early symptoms of eating disorders that may affect different age groups. Globally and among Arab countries, compulsive exercise is common, while the screening methods used to assess compulsive exercise are limited. Thus, the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET) has emerged as a tool to assess cognitive, behavioural, and emotional factors related to compulsive exercise. The CET is a self-report, Likert-type scale comprising five distinct subscales. The increase in the CET scores is more likely associated with worsened pathology. Since the Arab countries lack such an assessment tool, we aimed to translate the CET into Arabic, validate the translated version, confirm the factor structures, and assess the internal consistency of the different subscales. Herein, we used the forward–backward translation method as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall validity index of the translated version showed a score higher than 0.78, while the scale-level content validity index based on the average calculating method (S-CVI/Ave) and the agreement method (S-CVI/UA) were 0.91 and 0.58, respectively. Moreover, we recruited 399 Arabs living in Saudi to measure the internal consistency, and the value of the substantive internal consistency with Cronbach’s α was 0.81. Subsequently, four of the Arabic-CET subscales had substantive internal consistency with Cronbach’s α values higher than or equal to 0.70. Furthermore, the exploratory factor analysis results supported the substantial use of the five-subscale model. Taken together, our study supports using the Arabic-CET version to measure exercise compulsiveness among Arabs. Full article
12 pages, 4041 KiB  
Article
Test–Retest Reliability of an Isometric and Isometric/Vibratory Muscular Strength Protocol with Functional Electro-Mechanical Dynamometry
by Oscar Andrades-Ramírez, David Ulloa-Díaz, Bryan Alfaro Castillo, Patricio Arroyo-Jofré, Antonio Castillo-Paredes and Luis Chirosa-Ríos
Sports 2024, 12(7), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070175 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to analyze the test–retest reliability of an isometric and isometric/vibratory muscular strength protocol in the bilateral seated bench press (BSBP), bilateral seated rowing (BSR), unilateral seated right knee extension (USKER), and left knee extension (USKEL) tests controlled [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to analyze the test–retest reliability of an isometric and isometric/vibratory muscular strength protocol in the bilateral seated bench press (BSBP), bilateral seated rowing (BSR), unilateral seated right knee extension (USKER), and left knee extension (USKEL) tests controlled using functional electromechanical dynamometry (FEMD) in healthy young adults. A repeated measures design was used to determine the reliability of a muscular strength protocol in isometric and isometric vibration modes with FEMD. No significant differences were found in test–retest analysis (p > 0.05; ES < 0.20); and high reliability (CV = 4.65–5.02%; ICC = 0.99–0.98) was found for BSBP measures, and acceptable reliability (CV = 3.71–9.61%; ICC = 0.98–0.95) was found for BSR, USKER, and USKEL. Furthermore, the coefficients between the two measures were strong (r = 0.963–0.839) and highly significant (p = 0.001) for maximal strength in the isometric and maximal isometric/vibratory assessment of muscle strength in all muscle strength tests. This study demonstrates that isometric and maximal isometric/vibratory strength in the BSBP, BSR, USKER, and USKEL tests can be measured with high reliability and reproducibility using the FEMD. Full article
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14 pages, 1270 KiB  
Article
Awareness and Knowledge of the Physical Activity Guidelines and Their Association with Physical Activity Levels
by Ahmed M. Wafi, Saud N. Wadani, Yazan Y. Daghriri, Ali I. Alamri, Abdulrahim M. Zangoti, Ayman A. Khiswi, Elyas Y. Al-Ebrahim, Hemachandran J. Jesudoss and Abdullah A. Alharbi
Sports 2024, 12(7), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070174 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Background: Physical activity guidelines recommend that adults engage in aerobic exercise and activities that preserve or increase muscle mass. The primary aim of this study was to assess the awareness and knowledge of these guidelines among adults in the Jazan region of Saudi [...] Read more.
Background: Physical activity guidelines recommend that adults engage in aerobic exercise and activities that preserve or increase muscle mass. The primary aim of this study was to assess the awareness and knowledge of these guidelines among adults in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. A secondary objective was to examine the role of awareness and knowledge in the adherence to physical activity guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 1018 participants were recruited through a self-administered online survey. Participants’ awareness and knowledge about physical activity guidelines were assessed using a prompted questionnaire. Physical activity levels and weekly energy expenditures were evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: The proportion of the participants who reported being aware of the guidelines was approximately 48%, whereas the proportion of the participants who correctly identified the guidelines for moderate-intensity physical activity was 38%. However, only 23% correctly identified the muscle strength guidelines. Those who were aware of the guidelines were most likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.55–2.65). Participants who reported being aware of the guidelines exhibited a significantly higher energy expenditure, measured in MET minutes per week (p < 0.01). Similarly, participants who correctly identified the guidelines had greater energy expenditure (p = 0.03). Conclusions: We found that adults in Jazan have a moderate level of awareness and knowledge of PA guidelines and that awareness is a predictor of adherence to these guidelines. Individuals who are aware of PA guidelines or have knowledge of them tend to have higher levels of physical activity. These findings suggest that public health campaigns that promote awareness and knowledge of the physical activity guidelines may accelerate the progress in engaging the Saudi population with these guidelines. Full article
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18 pages, 470 KiB  
Article
Healthcare Professionals’ Attitudes and Practices According to Their Recommendations on Exercise during the First Trimester of Pregnancy: A Greek Cross-Sectional Study
by Vasileios Daglas, Nikolaos Kostopoulos, Irina Mrvoljak-Theodoropoulou, Michalis Mitrotasios, Maria Dagla, Aikaterini Lykeridou and Evangelia Antoniou
Sports 2024, 12(7), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070173 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to investigate healthcare professionals’ attitudes and practices when it comes to their recommendations on exercise during the first trimester of pregnancy and to highlight the factors that influence or predict these attitudes. Methods: This cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study is to investigate healthcare professionals’ attitudes and practices when it comes to their recommendations on exercise during the first trimester of pregnancy and to highlight the factors that influence or predict these attitudes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2022 and March 2023, on a sample of 237 Greek healthcare professionals (midwives and obstetricians) employed in healthcare settings in Attica/Greece. In the statistical analysis, eight independent models of multivariate analyses of variance were conducted. Results: Only half of the participants (54.89%) report that they recommend exercise to pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy. The majority do not routinely recommend a specific frequency and duration of exercise. Participants who believe that exercise during pregnancy is of little benefit to pregnant women were less likely to recommend the following, in the first trimester of pregnancy: (a) exercise in general (p = 0.002), (b) resistance/muscle strengthening exercises (p = 0.039), (c) relaxation exercises (p = 0.002), and (d) a specific exercise duration (p = 0.011). Those who report being very familiar with the international guidelines are (a) more likely to recommend exercise in general (p = 0.013), as well as aerobic exercises (p = 0.023); (b) less likely to not recommend a specific frequency (p = 0.027); and (c) more likely to recommend a duration of 30–45 min of exercise in the first trimester (p = 0.017). Conclusions: I this study, a significant proportion of health professionals’ attitudes appear to diverge from the recommendations set forth by international scientific bodies regarding exercise during pregnancy. Furthermore, health professionals’ beliefs regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, along with their familiarity with international guidelines, appear to influence their usual practices in recommending exercise during the first trimester of pregnancy to pregnant women. Full article
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25 pages, 1732 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review on the Influence of Contextual Factors on Training Load in Adolescent Soccer Players: What Do We Know?
by Rick Nijland, Tynke Toering, Cameron G. Watson, Johan de Jong and Koen A. P. M. Lemmink
Sports 2024, 12(7), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12070172 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
This scoping review aimed to systematically explore the breadth and extent of the literature regarding the relationship between contextual factors (CFs) and training load (TL) in adolescent soccer players. Further aims included comprehending potential underlying mechanisms and identifying knowledge gaps. CFs were defined [...] Read more.
This scoping review aimed to systematically explore the breadth and extent of the literature regarding the relationship between contextual factors (CFs) and training load (TL) in adolescent soccer players. Further aims included comprehending potential underlying mechanisms and identifying knowledge gaps. CFs were defined as factors not part of the main training process, such as the coach–athlete relationship and educational responsibilities. PubMed, EBSCO APA PsycINFO, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I, and SportRxiv were searched. Studies involving adolescent soccer players that investigated the CF–TL relationship and measured TL indicators were deemed eligible. Seventeen studies were included, reflecting the limited number of articles published regarding the CF–TL relationship. CFs were mostly related to match-play (N = 13) and phase of the season (N = 7). Moreover, these factors appeared to affect TL. CF related to players’ personal environment (N = 3) were underrepresented in the reviewed studies. Overall, the CF–TL relationship appears to be rarely scrutinized. A likely cause for this lack of research is the segregation of the physiological and psychological research domains, where the CF–TL relationship is often speculated upon but not measured. Therefore, a holistic approach is warranted which also investigates the effect of personal environment, such as stressful life stress events, on TL. Full article
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