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Open AccessCommunication

Descriptive Bacterial and Fungal Characterization of Propolis Using Ultra-High-Throughput Marker Gene Sequencing

1
MNA de Mexico, Research and Development, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66477, Mexico
2
Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, General Escobedo, Nuevo Leon 66050, Mexico
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, General Escobedo, Nuevo Leon 66050, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(11), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10110402
Received: 5 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Honeybee Health)
Bees harbor microorganisms that are important for host health, physiology, and survival. Propolis helps modulate the immune system and health of the colony, but little information is available about its microbial constituents. Total genomic DNA from samples of natural propolis from Apis mellifera production hives from four locations in Mexico were used to amplify a region of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcriber spacer (fungi), using PCR. The Illumina MiSeq platform was used to sequence PCR amplicons. Extensive variation in microbial composition was observed between the propolis samples. The most abundant bacterial group was Rhodopila spp. (median: 14%; range: 0.1%–27%), a group with one of the highest redox potential in the microbial world. Other high abundant groups include Corynebacterium spp. (median: 8.4%; 1.6%–19.5%) and Sphingomonas spp. (median: 5.9%; 0.03%–14.3%), a group that has been used for numerous biotechnological applications because of its biodegradative capabilities. Bacillus and Prevotella spp. alone comprised as much as 88% (53% and 35%, respectively) of all bacterial microbiota in one sample. Candida (2%–43%), Acremonium (0.03%–25.2%), and Aspergillus (0.1%–43%) were among the most abundant fungi. The results contribute to a better understanding of the factors associated with the health of Apis mellifera production hives. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apis mellifera; bees; honeybees; propolis; microbiota Apis mellifera; bees; honeybees; propolis; microbiota
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Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F.; Kawas, J.R.; Marroquin-Cardona, A.G. Descriptive Bacterial and Fungal Characterization of Propolis Using Ultra-High-Throughput Marker Gene Sequencing. Insects 2019, 10, 402.

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