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Open AccessArticle

Metformin Pharmacogenetics: Effects of SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 Polymorphisms on Glycemic Control and HbA1c Levels

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Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Department of Internal Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20010, USA
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Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Department of Internal Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm9010017
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine Based on Drug Transporter Genetic Heterogeneity)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) constitutes a major portion of Jordan’s disease burden, and incidence rates are rising at a rapid rate. Due to variability in the drug’s response between ethnic groups, it is imperative that the pharmacogenetics of metformin be investigated in the Jordanian population. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 genes and their effects on metformin pharmacogenetics in Jordanian patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood samples were collected from 212 Jordanian diabetics who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, which were then used in SNP genotyping and determination of HbA1c levels. The rs12194182 SNP in the SLC22A3 gene was found to have a significant association (p < 0.05) with lower mean HbA1c levels, and this association more pronounced in patients with the CC genotype (i.e., p-value was significant before correcting for multiple testing). Moreover, the multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that SNP genotypes within the SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 genes, body mass index (BMI) and age of diagnosis were significantly associated with glycemic control (p < 0.05). The results of this study can be used to predict response to metformin and other classes of T2DM drugs, making treatment more individualized and resulting in better clinical outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: metformin; pharmacogenetics; solute carrier gene; SNPs; HbA1c; glycemic control metformin; pharmacogenetics; solute carrier gene; SNPs; HbA1c; glycemic control
MDPI and ACS Style

AL-Eitan, L.N.; Almomani, B.A.; Nassar, A.M.; Elsaqa, B.Z.; Saadeh, N.A. Metformin Pharmacogenetics: Effects of SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 Polymorphisms on Glycemic Control and HbA1c Levels. J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9, 17.

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