# Game-Theoretic Solutions for Data Offloading in Next Generation Networks

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Related Work

## 3. System Model

_{MBS}and S

_{wi}, respectively, and i = 1, 2. NAPs and the WiFi settings were organized in a way that there are no overlapped areas between them. In this crowded area, various mobile users used the network setup for many applications, and traffics generated by the mobile users could be offloaded to an AP if the Mobile User (MU) was located within the converging area of the AP and had the WiFi interface. The traffic profile of the MBS was given by:

## 4. Game-Theoretic Model for Heterogeneous Traffic Using a Two-Stage Stackelberg Approach

**Definition**

**1.**

**Theorem**

**1.**

**Proposition.**

- (1)
- ${\left({S}_{m}\right)}_{m\in P}$is a nonempty, convex, and compact subset of a 3-dimensional Euclidean space,
- (2)
- ${U}_{m}$is continuous in l and concave in${l}_{m}$.

**Theorem**

**2.**

**Theorem**

**3.**

#### Mobile Base Station (MBS) Strategy

## 5. Experiments, Results, and Discussion

_{D}= 1. We observed that the text data had the highest rate of the download. Audio and video data had comparatively lower rates, while the real data is the lowest among all types of data. However, Figure 2 shows that the downloaded traffic had an exponential increase when the numbers of piccolos were less than five and increasing. However, it stabilized for a higher and higher number of cells.

_{V}= 1.5, and in (b) β

_{V}= 2. It was observed that the video data got a higher rate of the download, and it matched with audio data at incentive β

_{A}= 1 when we further increased the incentive for video data to 2.

_{A}= 1.5, and in (b) β

_{A}= 2. It was observed that the audio data got a higher rate of the download, and it even got higher than text data at incentive β

_{T}= 1. When we further increased the incentive for audio data to 2, i.e., β

_{A}= 2, the download was further increased, and it matched with the highest download of text data, i.e., β

_{T}= 2.

_{T}= 1.5, and in (b) β

_{T}= 2. It was observed that the video data got a higher rate of the download, and it matched with audio data at incentive β

_{A}= 1. When incentives for text data were further increased to 2, i.e., β

_{T}= 2, the download was exponentially increased. In this case, the text data gave a greater response to the economic incentives as compared to other types of data.

#### 5.1. Effect of Changes in APs on Offloading

#### 5.2. MBS’ Payoff

#### 5.3. Comparative Analysis

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Offloaded traffic with (

**a**) β

_{D}= 4, β

_{R}= 1.5, β

_{V}= 1, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 1 and (

**b**) β

_{D}= 5, β

_{R}= 2, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 1, and β

_{V}= 1.

**Figure 4.**Offloaded traffic with (

**a**) β

_{D}= 4.5, β

_{V}= 1.5, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 1 and β

_{R}= 1, and (

**b**) β

_{D}= 5, β

_{V}= 2, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 1, and β

_{R}= 1.

**Figure 5.**Offloaded traffic with (

**a**) β

_{D}= 4.5, β

_{V}= 1, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 1.5 and β

_{R}= 1, and (

**b**) β

_{D}= 5, β

_{V}= 1, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 2, and β

_{R}= 1.

**Figure 6.**Offloaded traffic with (

**a**) β

_{D}= 4.5, β

_{V}= 1, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 1.5 and β

_{R}= 1, and (

**b**) β

_{D}= 5, β

_{V}= 1, β

_{T}= 1, β

_{A}= 2, and β

_{R}= 1.

**Figure 7.**Effect of a number of multiple APs for offloading different types of data: (

**a**) β

_{A}, (

**b**) β

_{V}, and (

**c**) β

_{T}.

**Figure 8.**MBS’s linear utility and linear cost: (

**a**) Macrocell utility β

_{V}s economic incentive, and (

**b**) optimal economic incentive β

_{V}s number of APs.

Parameters | Value |
---|---|

MBS | 01 |

MBS Bandwidth | 20 MHz |

Area of the MBS | 1000 × 1000 m^{2} |

The total transmission power of MBS | 46 dBm |

APs number in hotspot | 04 |

Area of the APs | 100 × 100 m^{2} |

The total transmission power of APs | 30 dBm |

Number of users per | 80 |

**Table 2.**Summary of Results of Figure 2.

Data Type | Incentive Effect | Need for Offloading | Graph Variation |
---|---|---|---|

Real-time data | Lowest | Least | Lowest |

Video data | Low | Comparatively not necessary | Low |

Audio data | Medium | Necessarily required | Medium |

Textual data | High | Needed | High |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Asif, M.; Khan, S.U.; Ahmad, R.; Singh, D.
Game-Theoretic Solutions for Data Offloading in Next Generation Networks. *Symmetry* **2018**, *10*, 299.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080299

**AMA Style**

Asif M, Khan SU, Ahmad R, Singh D.
Game-Theoretic Solutions for Data Offloading in Next Generation Networks. *Symmetry*. 2018; 10(8):299.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080299

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Asif, Muhammad, Shafi Ullah Khan, Rashid Ahmad, and Dhananjay Singh.
2018. "Game-Theoretic Solutions for Data Offloading in Next Generation Networks" *Symmetry* 10, no. 8: 299.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080299