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Article

Smallholder Commercialization and Urban-Rural Linkages: Effect of Interest-Free Agriculture Credit on Market Participation of Rice Growers in Pakistan

by 1,†, 1,†, 2,3,4 and 1,*
1
College of Economics and Management, China Centre for Food Security Studies, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
2
Department of Geography, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Research Group Climate Change and Security, Institute of Geography, University of Hamburg, 20144 Hamburg, Germany
4
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture in Urban Food Systems: Models and Practices)
This study estimates the effect of interest-free agriculture credit on the market participation and urban-rural linkages of rice growers in Pakistan. A survey was conducted to collect primary data using purposive and simple random sampling techniques from Punjab, Pakistan. This study applied the Instrument Variable (IV) approach and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) to evaluate the impact of interest-free credit on market participation and income. The results show a mixed influence of interest-free credit on rice growers’ market participation and urban-rural linkages. In general, the effect is negative when farmers obtained credit for six months. However, it shows a positive impact when farmers’ received credit for the next consecutive crop. Our findings suggest that the provision of interest-free credit for one year served a better purpose as it significantly attempted to alleviate budget constraints and endorsed farmers to increase land size under rice cultivation and improve productivity, market participation, and urban-rural linkages. The study provides three valid instruments and, therefore, a superior estimate of effect is achieved which can be leveraged to better support coherent agri-food policymaking. View Full-Text
Keywords: market participation; urban-rural linkages; commercialization; subsistence systems; interest-free credit; food policies market participation; urban-rural linkages; commercialization; subsistence systems; interest-free credit; food policies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sher, A.; Mazhar, S.; Azadi, H.; Lin, G. Smallholder Commercialization and Urban-Rural Linkages: Effect of Interest-Free Agriculture Credit on Market Participation of Rice Growers in Pakistan. Land 2021, 10, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010007

AMA Style

Sher A, Mazhar S, Azadi H, Lin G. Smallholder Commercialization and Urban-Rural Linkages: Effect of Interest-Free Agriculture Credit on Market Participation of Rice Growers in Pakistan. Land. 2021; 10(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sher, Ali; Mazhar, Saman; Azadi, Hossein; Lin, Guanghua. 2021. "Smallholder Commercialization and Urban-Rural Linkages: Effect of Interest-Free Agriculture Credit on Market Participation of Rice Growers in Pakistan" Land 10, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010007

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