Next Article in Journal
Improving Radar-Based Rainfall Forecasts by Long Short-Term Memory Network in Urban Basins
Next Article in Special Issue
Thermal Desalination of Produced Water—An Analysis of the Partitioning of Constituents into Product Streams and Its Implications for Beneficial Use Outside the O&G Industry
Previous Article in Journal
Potential Use of the Benthic Foraminifers Bulimina denudata and Eggerelloides advenus in Marine Sediment Toxicity Testing
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Critical Review of Analytical Methods for Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Water
Article

Rice Physiological Response with Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inoculation into Soil under Reclaimed Water–Fresh Water Combined Irrigation

1
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang 453003, China
2
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GSCAAS), Beijing 100081, China
3
Water Environment Factor Risk Assessment Laboratory of Agricultural Products Quality and Safety, Ministry of Agriculture, Xinxiang 453002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pei Xu and Yanyan Zhang
Water 2021, 13(6), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060773
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
The increasing soil salinity levels under reclaimed water irrigation have a negative effect on plant growth. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 under reclaimed water–fresh water combined irrigation. After transplanting (Day 1), rice was irrigated with clean water (tap water) for 10 days to facilitate rice root colonisation. Subsequently, rice was irrigated with reclaimed water for 50 days (Day 11 to 60), and then irrigated with clean water. B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae were mixed with clean water (tap water) and irrigated into soil at Day 61. B. subtilis (20 billion colony-forming units/g) and S. cerevisiae (20 billion colony-forming units/g) were mixed at the following proportions: 5 g and 0 (J1), 3.75 g and 1.25 g (J2), 2.5 g and 2.5 g (J3), 1.25 g and 3.75 g (J4), and 0 and 5 g (J5), respectively; rice treated with reclaimed water (CK) and clean water (J0) with no microorganisms applied were also used. We measured NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations and electrical conductivity (EC) in the soil at 0–5, 5–15, and 15–25 cm layers; root activity; and malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in leaves at Day 71. B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae combination could promote rice physiological indices, and B. subtilis had a greater effect than S. cerevisiae. There are obvious differences in the physiological performance and soil N between 2018 and 2019 due to the EC of reclaimed water. Redundancy analysis revealed that soil NO3-N and the mass of B. subtilis applied were major factors influencing leaf physiological indices. Five grams of B. subtilis is recommended to facilitate rice growth after irrigation with reclaimed water. Our research provides a new agronomic measure for the safe utilisation of reclaimed water. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; rice; soil nitrogen; physiology Bacillus subtilis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; rice; soil nitrogen; physiology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, H.; Qi, X.; Rahman, S.u.; Qiao, D.; Li, P.; Han, Y.; Zhao, Z. Rice Physiological Response with Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inoculation into Soil under Reclaimed Water–Fresh Water Combined Irrigation. Water 2021, 13, 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060773

AMA Style

Lu H, Qi X, Rahman Su, Qiao D, Li P, Han Y, Zhao Z. Rice Physiological Response with Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inoculation into Soil under Reclaimed Water–Fresh Water Combined Irrigation. Water. 2021; 13(6):773. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060773

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lu, Hongfei; Qi, Xuebin; Rahman, Shafeeq u.; Qiao, Dongmei; Li, Ping; Han, Yang; Zhao, Zhijuan. 2021. "Rice Physiological Response with Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inoculation into Soil under Reclaimed Water–Fresh Water Combined Irrigation" Water 13, no. 6: 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060773

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop