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Article

Potential Use of the Benthic Foraminifers Bulimina denudata and Eggerelloides advenus in Marine Sediment Toxicity Testing

U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Academic Editors: Vincent Bouchet, Fabrizio Frontalini and Daniela Zeppilli
Water 2021, 13(6), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060775
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
The benthic foraminifers Bulimina denudata and Eggerelloides advenus are commonly abundant in offshore regions in the Pacific Ocean, especially in waste-discharge sites. The relationship between their abundance and standard macrofaunal sediment toxicity tests (amphipod survival and sea urchin fertilization) as well as sediment chemistry analyte measurements were determined for sediments collected in 1997 in Santa Monica Bay, California, USA, an area impacted by historical sewage input from the Hyperion Outfall primarily since the late 1950s. Very few surface samples proved to be contaminated based on either toxicity or chemistry tests and the abundance of B. denudata did not correlate with any of these. The abundance of E. advenus also did not correlate with toxicity, but positively correlated with total solids and negatively correlated with arsenic, beryllium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc, iron, and TOC. In contrast, several downcore samples proved to be contaminated as indicated by both toxicity and chemistry data. The abundance of B. denudata positively correlated with amphipod survival and negatively correlated with arsenic, cadmium, unionized ammonia, and TOC; E. advenus negatively correlated with sea urchin fertilization success as well as beryllium, cadmium, and total PCBs. As B. denudata and E. advenus are tolerant of polluted sediments and their relative abundances appear to track those of macrofaunal toxicity tests, their use as cost- and time-effective marine sediment toxicity tests may have validity and should be further investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: sediment toxicity; amphipod survival; sea urchin fertilization; foraminifera; Bulimina denudata; Eggerelloides advenus sediment toxicity; amphipod survival; sea urchin fertilization; foraminifera; Bulimina denudata; Eggerelloides advenus
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MDPI and ACS Style

McGann, M. Potential Use of the Benthic Foraminifers Bulimina denudata and Eggerelloides advenus in Marine Sediment Toxicity Testing. Water 2021, 13, 775. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060775

AMA Style

McGann M. Potential Use of the Benthic Foraminifers Bulimina denudata and Eggerelloides advenus in Marine Sediment Toxicity Testing. Water. 2021; 13(6):775. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060775

Chicago/Turabian Style

McGann, Mary. 2021. "Potential Use of the Benthic Foraminifers Bulimina denudata and Eggerelloides advenus in Marine Sediment Toxicity Testing" Water 13, no. 6: 775. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060775

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