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Article

Damming Induced Natural Attenuation of Hydrothermal Waters by Runoff Freshwater Dilution and Sediment Biogeochemical Transformations (Sochagota Lake, Colombia)

1
Water Resources Research Group, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Campus Tunja, University of Boyacá, Tunja 15003, Colombia
2
Department of Geology and CEACTEMA, Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura
Water 2021, 13(23), 3445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233445
Received: 1 November 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 1 December 2021 / Published: 4 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
The volcanic area of the Paipa system (Boyacá, Colombia) contains a magmatic heat source and deep fractures that help the flow of hot and highly mineralized waters, which are further combined with cold superficial inputs. This mixed water recharges the Salitre River and downstream feeding Sochagota Lake. The incoming water can contribute to substantial increases in hydrothermal SO42−-Na water in the water of the Salitre River basin area, raising the salinity. An additional hydrogeochemical process occurs in the mix with cold Fe-rich water from alluvial and surficial aquifers. This salinized Fe-rich water feeds the Sochagota Lake, although the impact of freshwaters from rain on the hydrochemistry of the Sochagota Lake is significant. A series of hydrogeochemical, biogeochemical, and mineralogical processes occur inside the lake. The aim of this work was to study the influence of damming in the Sochagota Lake, which acts as a natural attenuation of contaminants such as high concentrations of metals and salty elements coming from the Salitre River. Damming in the Sochagota Lake is considered to be an effective strategy for attenuating highly mineralized waters. The concentrations of dissolved elements were attenuated significantly. Dilution by rainfall runoff and precipitation of iron sulfides mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria in deposits rich in organic material were the main processes involved in the attenuation of concentrations of SO42−, Fe, As Cu, and Co in the lake water. Furthermore, the K-consuming illitization processes occurring in the sediments could favor the decrease in K and Al. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sochagota Lake; Paipa volcanic area; natural contaminant attenuation; S and Fe uptake; precipitation of pyrite Sochagota Lake; Paipa volcanic area; natural contaminant attenuation; S and Fe uptake; precipitation of pyrite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cifuentes, G.R.; Jiménez-Espinosa, R.; Quevedo, C.P.; Jiménez-Millán, J. Damming Induced Natural Attenuation of Hydrothermal Waters by Runoff Freshwater Dilution and Sediment Biogeochemical Transformations (Sochagota Lake, Colombia). Water 2021, 13, 3445. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233445

AMA Style

Cifuentes GR, Jiménez-Espinosa R, Quevedo CP, Jiménez-Millán J. Damming Induced Natural Attenuation of Hydrothermal Waters by Runoff Freshwater Dilution and Sediment Biogeochemical Transformations (Sochagota Lake, Colombia). Water. 2021; 13(23):3445. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233445

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cifuentes, Gabriel R., Rosario Jiménez-Espinosa, Claudia P. Quevedo, and Juan Jiménez-Millán. 2021. "Damming Induced Natural Attenuation of Hydrothermal Waters by Runoff Freshwater Dilution and Sediment Biogeochemical Transformations (Sochagota Lake, Colombia)" Water 13, no. 23: 3445. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233445

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