Next Article in Journal
Study on Sludge and Dissolved Oxygen Distribution in a Full-Scale A2/O Oxidation Ditch
Next Article in Special Issue
Preliminary Evaluation of the Possible Occurrence of Pesticides in Groundwater Contaminated with Nitrates—A Case Study from Southern Poland
Previous Article in Journal
Combining Spectral Water Indices and Mathematical Morphology to Evaluate Surface Water Extraction in Taiwan
Previous Article in Special Issue
‘Hidden Hot Springs’ as a Source of Groundwater Fluoride and Severe Dental Fluorosis in Malawi
 
 
Article

Vulnerability Assessment as a Basis for Sanitary Zone Delineation of Karst Groundwater Sources—Blederija Spring Case Study

Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Đušina 7, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Sdao and Filomena Canora
Water 2021, 13(19), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192775
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 6 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Assessment)
The application of groundwater vulnerability methods has great importance for the sanitary protection zones delineation of karstic sources. Source vulnerability assessment of karst groundwater has mainly relied on the European approach (European Cooperation in Science and Technology—COST action 620), which includes analysis of the K factor, which refers to water flow through the saturated zone of the karst system. In the paper, two approaches to groundwater vulnerability assessment have been applied, COP + K and TDM (Time-Dependent Model) methods, to produce the most suitable source vulnerability map that can be transformed into sanitary protection zones maps. Both methods were tested on the case example of Blederija karst spring in Eastern Serbia. This spring represents a classical karst spring with allogenic and autogenic recharge. Dual aquifer recharge points out the necessity for the inclusion of the vulnerability assessment method created especially for the assessment of karst groundwater. Obtained vulnerability maps show similar results, particularly in the spring and the ponor areas, and these zones are most important for future protection. The COP + K method brings out three vulnerability classes that can be directly transformed into three sanitary protection zones. Contrary to the previous one, the TDM method uses water travel time as a vulnerability degree. The results show that the final map can be easily used to define sanitary zones considering different national legislation. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst groundwater source protection; sanitary zone delineation; COP + K method; TDM method; Blederija groundwater source karst groundwater source protection; sanitary zone delineation; COP + K method; TDM method; Blederija groundwater source
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Živanović, V.; Atanacković, N.; Stojadinović, S. Vulnerability Assessment as a Basis for Sanitary Zone Delineation of Karst Groundwater Sources—Blederija Spring Case Study. Water 2021, 13, 2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192775

AMA Style

Živanović V, Atanacković N, Stojadinović S. Vulnerability Assessment as a Basis for Sanitary Zone Delineation of Karst Groundwater Sources—Blederija Spring Case Study. Water. 2021; 13(19):2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192775

Chicago/Turabian Style

Živanović, Vladimir, Nebojša Atanacković, and Saša Stojadinović. 2021. "Vulnerability Assessment as a Basis for Sanitary Zone Delineation of Karst Groundwater Sources—Blederija Spring Case Study" Water 13, no. 19: 2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192775

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop