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Review

Effects of River-Ice Breakup on Sediment Transport and Implications to Stream Environments: A Review

1
Watershed Hydrology and Ecology Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1, Canada
2
Independent Researcher, P.O. Box 3027, Fredericton, NB E3A 5G8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bommanna Krishnappan and Achim A. Beylich
Water 2021, 13(18), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182541
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of River Flows, Sediment and Contaminants Transport)
During the breakup of river ice covers, a greater potential for erosion occurs due to rising discharge and moving ice and the highly dynamic waves that form upon ice-jam release. Consequently, suspended-sediment concentrations can increase sharply and peak before the arrival of the peak flow. Large spikes in sediment concentrations occasionally occur during the passage of sharp waves resulting from releases of upstream ice jams and the ensuing ice runs. This is important, as river form and function (both geomorphologic and ecological) depend upon sediment erosion and deposition. Yet, sediment monitoring programs often overlook the higher suspended-sediment concentrations and loads that occur during the breakup period owing to data-collection difficulties in the presence of moving ice and ice jams. In this review paper, we introduce basics of river sediment erosion and transport and of relevant phenomena that occur during the breakup of river ice. Datasets of varying volume and detail on measured and inferred suspended-sediment concentrations during the breakup period on different rivers are reviewed and compared. Possible effects of river characteristics on seasonal sediment supply are discussed, and the implications of increased sediment supply are reviewed based on seasonal comparisons. The paper also reviews the environmental significance of increased sediment supply both on water quality and ecosystem functionality. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic life; bank erosion; bed shear; ice jam; sediment pulse; suspended-sediment concentration; water quality aquatic life; bank erosion; bed shear; ice jam; sediment pulse; suspended-sediment concentration; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beltaos, S.; Burrell, B.C. Effects of River-Ice Breakup on Sediment Transport and Implications to Stream Environments: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 2541. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182541

AMA Style

Beltaos S, Burrell BC. Effects of River-Ice Breakup on Sediment Transport and Implications to Stream Environments: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(18):2541. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182541

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beltaos, Spyros, and Brian C. Burrell 2021. "Effects of River-Ice Breakup on Sediment Transport and Implications to Stream Environments: A Review" Water 13, no. 18: 2541. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182541

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