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Article

Optimisation of Various Physicochemical Variables Affecting Molybdenum Bioremediation Using Antarctic Bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. Strain AQ5-05

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Bioscience and Engineering, College of Systems Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama 337-8570, Japan
3
Faculty of Applied Sciences, School of Biology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Gavrilescu
Water 2021, 13(17), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172367
Received: 26 July 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 27 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution)
The versatility of a rare metal, molybdenum (Mo) in many industrial applications is one of the reasons why Mo is currently one of the growing environmental pollutants worldwide. Traces of inorganic contaminants, including Mo, have been discovered in Antarctica and are compromising the ecosystem. Bioremediation utilising bacteria to transform pollutants into a less toxic form is one of the approaches for solving Mo pollution. Mo reduction is a process of transforming sodium molybdate with an oxidation state of 6+ to Mo-blue, an inert version of the compound. Although there are a few Mo-reducing microbes that have been identified worldwide, only two studies were reported on the microbial reduction of Mo in Antarctica. Therefore, this study was done to assess the ability of Antarctic bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. strain AQ5-05, in reducing Mo. Optimisation of Mo reduction in Mo-supplemented media was carried out using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) approaches. Through OFAT, Mo was reduced optimally with substrate concentration of sucrose, ammonium sulphate, and molybdate at 1 g/L, 0.2 g/L, and 10 mM, respectively. The pH and salinity of the media were the best at 7.0 and 0.5 g/L, respectively, while the optimal temperature was at 10 °C. Further optimisation using RSM showed greater Mo-blue production in comparison to OFAT. The strain was able to stand high concentration of Mo and low temperature conditions, thus showing its potential in reducing Mo in Antarctica by employing conditions optimised by RSM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; molybdenum; microbial remediation; one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT); response surface methodology (RSM) Antarctica; molybdenum; microbial remediation; one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT); response surface methodology (RSM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Darham, S.; Syed-Muhaimin, S.N.; Subramaniam, K.; Zulkharnain, A.; Shaharuddin, N.A.; Khalil, K.A.; Ahmad, S.A. Optimisation of Various Physicochemical Variables Affecting Molybdenum Bioremediation Using Antarctic Bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. Strain AQ5-05. Water 2021, 13, 2367. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172367

AMA Style

Darham S, Syed-Muhaimin SN, Subramaniam K, Zulkharnain A, Shaharuddin NA, Khalil KA, Ahmad SA. Optimisation of Various Physicochemical Variables Affecting Molybdenum Bioremediation Using Antarctic Bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. Strain AQ5-05. Water. 2021; 13(17):2367. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Darham, Syazani, Sharifah N. Syed-Muhaimin, Kavilasni Subramaniam, Azham Zulkharnain, Noor A. Shaharuddin, Khalilah A. Khalil, and Siti A. Ahmad 2021. "Optimisation of Various Physicochemical Variables Affecting Molybdenum Bioremediation Using Antarctic Bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. Strain AQ5-05" Water 13, no. 17: 2367. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172367

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