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Article

Optimal Number of Pressure Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Distribution Networks by Using the Hypervolume Indicator

1
INCITE, Barreiro School of Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal
2
CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Water 2021, 13(16), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162235
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 15 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply Assessment Systems Developing)
This article proposes a novel methodology to determine the optimal number of pressure sensors for the real-time monitoring of water distribution networks based on a quality hypervolume indicator. The proposed methodology solves the optimization problem for different numbers of pressure sensors, assesses the gain of installing each set of sensors by means of the hypervolume indicator and determines the optimal number of sensors by the variation of the hypervolume indicator. The methodology was applied to a real case study. Several robustness analyses were carried out. The results demonstrate that the methodology is hardly influenced by the method parameters and that a reasonable estimation of the optimal number of sensors can be easily achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time monitoring; pressure sensors; optimization; multi-objective; hypervolume real-time monitoring; pressure sensors; optimization; multi-objective; hypervolume
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, B.; Carriço, N.; Covas, D. Optimal Number of Pressure Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Distribution Networks by Using the Hypervolume Indicator. Water 2021, 13, 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162235

AMA Style

Ferreira B, Carriço N, Covas D. Optimal Number of Pressure Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Distribution Networks by Using the Hypervolume Indicator. Water. 2021; 13(16):2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferreira, Bruno, Nelson Carriço, and Dídia Covas. 2021. "Optimal Number of Pressure Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Distribution Networks by Using the Hypervolume Indicator" Water 13, no. 16: 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162235

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