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Open AccessArticle

Oxidation of Selected Trace Organic Compounds through the Combination of Inline Electro-Chlorination with UV Radiation (UV/ECl2) as Alternative AOP for Decentralized Drinking Water Treatment

1
AUTARCON GmbH, D-34117 Kassel, Germany
2
GNF e.V. Volmerstr. 7 B, 12489 Berlin, Germany
3
International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India
4
Division of Water Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Friedrich-List-Platz 1, 01069 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3275; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113275
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 14 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 21 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
A large variety of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) to degrade trace organic compounds during water treatment have been studied on a lab scale in the past. This paper presents the combination of inline electrolytic chlorine generation (ECl2) with low pressure UV reactors (UV/ECl2) in order to allow the operation of a chlorine-based AOP without the need for any chlorine dosing. Lab studies showed that from a Free Available Chlorine (FAC) concentration range between 1 and 18 mg/L produced by ECl2 up to 84% can be photolyzed to form, among others, hydroxyl radicals (OH) with an UV energy input of 0.48 kWh/m3. This ratio could be increased to 97% by doubling the UV energy input to 0.96 kWh/m3 and was constant throughout the tested FAC range. Also the achieved radical yield of 64% did not change along the given FAC concentration range and no dependence between pH 6 and pH 8 could be found, largely simplifying the operation of a pilot scale system in drinking water treatment. Whereas with ECl2 alone only 5% of benzotriazoles could be degraded, the combination with UV improved the degradation to 89%. Similar results were achieved for 4-methylbenzotriazole, 5-methylbenzotriazole and iomeprol. Oxipurinol and gabapentin were readily degraded by ECl2 alone. The trihalomethanes values were maintained below the Germany drinking water standard of 50 µg/L, provided residual chlorine concentrations are kept within the permissible limits. The here presented treatment approach is promising for decentralized treatment application but requires further optimization in order to reduce its energy requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace organic compounds; emerging pollutants; rural regions; electrochlorination; UV; AOP; energy per order trace organic compounds; emerging pollutants; rural regions; electrochlorination; UV; AOP; energy per order
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Otter, P.; Mette, K.; Wesch, R.; Gerhardt, T.; Krüger, F.-M.; Goldmaier, A.; Benz, F.; Malakar, P.; Grischek, T. Oxidation of Selected Trace Organic Compounds through the Combination of Inline Electro-Chlorination with UV Radiation (UV/ECl2) as Alternative AOP for Decentralized Drinking Water Treatment. Water 2020, 12, 3275.

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