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Open AccessArticle

Floating Wetland Islands Implementation and Biodiversity Assessment in a Port Marina

1
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Novo Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2
Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Praça de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3273; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113273
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 21 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management: New Paradigms for Water Treatment and Reuse)
Floating wetland islands (FWI) are considered nature-based solutions with great potential to promote several ecosystem services, such as biodiversity and water quality enhancement through phytoremediation processes. To our knowledge, the present work is the first to scientifically document the in-situ establishment of an FWI in a seawater port marina. The establishment and performance of a cork floating platform with a polyculture (Sarcocornia perennis, Juncus maritimus, Phragmites australis, Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritima, Limonium vulgare) was evaluated. The diversity of organisms present in the FWI was undertaken based on the macrofauna assessment, taking into consideration marine water characterization, with a focus on hydrocarbons. Microbial communities were assessed based on metabarcoding approach to study 16S rRNA gene from environmental DNA retrieved from biofilm (from the planting media), marine biofouling (from the submerged platform) and surface marina water. S. perennis was the species with the highest survival rate and growth. The structure of the microbial community showed clear differences between those established in the FWI and those in the surrounding water, showing the presence of some bacterial groups that can be relevant for bioremediation processes (e.g., Saprospiraceae family). Concerning the macrofauna analysis, Mytilus sp. was the predominant taxa. To be of relevance, total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected at the marina up to ca. 6 mg/L. This study gives new insights into broadening FWI application to the saline environments of port marinas and to supporting a management strategy to promote several ecosystem services such biodiversity, species habitat, water quality enhancement and added aesthetic value to the marina landscape. View Full-Text
Keywords: saline; seawater; marine; biofilm; biofouling; water quality; ecosystem services; nature-based solution; floating islands; artificial floating islands saline; seawater; marine; biofilm; biofouling; water quality; ecosystem services; nature-based solution; floating islands; artificial floating islands
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MDPI and ACS Style

Calheiros, C.S.C.; Carecho, J.; Tomasino, M.P.; Almeida, C.M.R.; Mucha, A.P. Floating Wetland Islands Implementation and Biodiversity Assessment in a Port Marina. Water 2020, 12, 3273.

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