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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of the Quality of Tap Water and the Properties of Installation Materials on the Formation of Biofilms

1
Department of Water Purification and Protection, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstancow Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
2
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstancow Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
3
Department of Materials Engineering and Technology of Building, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstancow Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091903
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
The article presents changes in the quality of tap water depending on time spent in installation and its impact on the creation of biofilms on various materials (polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chrome-nickel steel and galvanized steel). For the first time, quantitative analyses of biofilm were performed using methods such as: Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) measurement, flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate count and using fractographical parameters. In the water, after leaving the experimental installation, the increase of turbidity, content of organic compounds, nitrites and nitrates was found, as well as the decrease in the content of chlorine compounds, dissolved oxygen and phosphorus compounds. There was an increase in the number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. In addition, the presence of Escherichia coli was also found. The analysis of the quantitative determination of microorganisms in a biofilm indicates that galvanized steel is the most susceptible material for the adhesion of microorganisms. These results were also confirmed by the analysis of the biofilm morphology. The roughness profile, the thickness of the biofilm layer can be estimated at about 300 μm on galvanized steel. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm; tap water; water supply system biofilm; tap water; water supply system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Papciak, D.; Tchórzewska-Cieślak, B.; Domoń, A.; Wojtuś, A.; Żywiec, J.; Konkol, J. The Impact of the Quality of Tap Water and the Properties of Installation Materials on the Formation of Biofilms. Water 2019, 11, 1903. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091903

AMA Style

Papciak D, Tchórzewska-Cieślak B, Domoń A, Wojtuś A, Żywiec J, Konkol J. The Impact of the Quality of Tap Water and the Properties of Installation Materials on the Formation of Biofilms. Water. 2019; 11(9):1903. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091903

Chicago/Turabian Style

Papciak, Dorota; Tchórzewska-Cieślak, Barbara; Domoń, Andżelika; Wojtuś, Anna; Żywiec, Jakub; Konkol, Janusz. 2019. "The Impact of the Quality of Tap Water and the Properties of Installation Materials on the Formation of Biofilms" Water 11, no. 9: 1903. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091903

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