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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Temperature Profiling and Seepage Meter Methods for Quantifying Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Coastal Lagoons: Impacts of Saltwater Intrusion and the Associated Thermal Regime

1
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
3
WATEC, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081648
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
Surface water-groundwater interactions were studied in a coastal lagoon performing 180 seepage meter measurements and using heat as a tracer in 30 locations along a lagoon inlet. The direct seepage meter measurements were compared with the results from analytical solutions for the 1D heat transport equation in three different scenarios: (1) Homogeneous bulk thermal conductivity (Ke); (2) horizontal heterogeneity in Ke; and (3) horizontal and vertical heterogeneity in Ke. The proportion of fresh groundwater and saline recirculated lagoon water collected from the seepage experiment was used to infer the location of the saline wedge and its effect on both the seepage meter results and the thermal regime in the lagoon bed, conditioning the use of the thermal methods. The different scenarios provided the basis for a better understanding of the underlying processes in a coastal groundwater-discharging area, a key factor to apply the best-suited method to characterize such processes. The thermal methods were more reliable in areas with high fresh groundwater discharge than in areas with high recirculation of saline lagoon water. The seepage meter experiments highlighted the importance of geochemical water sampling to estimate the origin of the exchanged water through the lagoon bed. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat as a tracer; temperature profiles; seepage meter; lagoon; coastal areas; seawater intrusion; groundwater discharge; seawater-groundwater interactions heat as a tracer; temperature profiles; seepage meter; lagoon; coastal areas; seawater intrusion; groundwater discharge; seawater-groundwater interactions
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Tirado-Conde, J.; Engesgaard, P.; Karan, S.; Müller, S.; Duque, C. Evaluation of Temperature Profiling and Seepage Meter Methods for Quantifying Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Coastal Lagoons: Impacts of Saltwater Intrusion and the Associated Thermal Regime. Water 2019, 11, 1648.

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Water, EISSN 2073-4441, Published by MDPI AG
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