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Open AccessArticle

METRIC and WaPOR Estimates of Evapotranspiration over the Lake Urmia Basin: Comparative Analysis and Composite Assessment

1
Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 210011, USA
2
Remote Sensing Research Center, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155, Iran
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081647
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Abstract

Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of water and energy balance. In this study, we compare two ET products, suitable for regional analysis at high spatial resolution: The recent WaPOR product developed by FAO and METRIC algorithm. WaPOR is based on ETLook, which is a two-source model and relies on microwave images. WaPOR is unique as it has no limitation under cloudy days, but METRIC is limited by clouds. METRIC and WaPOR are more sensitive to land surface temperature and soil moisture, respectively. Using two years (2010 and 2014) of data over Lake Urmia basin, we show that in most areas, ET from METRIC is higher than WaPOR and the difference has an ascending trend with the elevation. The ET of lysimeter station is fairly consistent with METRIC based on a single observation. Our analysis using NDVI and land use maps suggests that the histogram of ET from WaPOR might be more realistic than METRIC, but not its amount. The fraction of ET to precipitation in rainfed agriculture areas shows that WaPOR is more accurate than METRIC, mainly because in the absence of other water resources such as ground water annual ET cannot exceed annual precipitation. In contrast, METRIC produces a more realistic estimate than WaPOR over irrigated farms. The results suggest that the two products can complement each other. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; WaPOR; METRIC; ETLook; Lake Urmia; remote sensing; MODIS; lysimeter; water consumption; irrigation evapotranspiration; WaPOR; METRIC; ETLook; Lake Urmia; remote sensing; MODIS; lysimeter; water consumption; irrigation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Javadian, M.; Behrangi, A.; Gholizadeh, M.; Tajrishy, M. METRIC and WaPOR Estimates of Evapotranspiration over the Lake Urmia Basin: Comparative Analysis and Composite Assessment. Water 2019, 11, 1647.

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