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Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Geothermal Water from the Ganzi Geothermal Field, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

1,2,3, 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3
1
Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Institutions of Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081631
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

The Ganzi geothermal field, located in the eastern sector of the Himalayan geothermal belt, is full of high-temperature surface manifestations. However, the geothermal potential has not been assessed so far. The hydrochemical and gas isotopic characteristics have been investigated in this study to determine the geochemical processes involved in the formation of the geothermal water. On the basis of δ18O and δD values, the geothermal waters originate from snow and glacier melt water. The water chemistry type is dominated by HCO3-Na, which is mainly derived from water-CO2-silicate interactions, as also indicated by the 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.714098–0.716888). Based on Cl-enthalpy mixing model, the chloride concentration of the deep geothermal fluid is 37 mg/L, which is lower than that of the existing magmatic heat source area. The estimated reservoir temperature ranges from 180–210 °C. Carbon isotope data demonstrate that the CO2 mainly originates from marine limestone metamorphism, with a fraction of 74–86%. The helium isotope ratio is 0.17–0.39 Ra, indicating that the He mainly comes from atmospheric and crustal sources, and no more than 5% comes from a mantle source. According to this evidence, we propose that there is no magmatic heat source below the Ganzi geothermal field, making it a distinctive type of high-temperature geothermal system on the Tibetan Plateau. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-temperature geothermal system; hydrogeochemistry; geothermal gas; heat source; chemical geothermometry high-temperature geothermal system; hydrogeochemistry; geothermal gas; heat source; chemical geothermometry
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Fan, Y.; Pang, Z.; Liao, D.; Tian, J.; Hao, Y.; Huang, T.; Li, Y. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Geothermal Water from the Ganzi Geothermal Field, Eastern Tibetan Plateau. Water 2019, 11, 1631.

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