Next Article in Journal
Dynamics of Infiltration Rate and Field-Saturated Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in a Wastewater-Irrigated Cropland
Previous Article in Journal
Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Geothermal Water from the Ganzi Geothermal Field, Eastern Tibetan Plateau
Open AccessArticle

Attitudes, Perceptions, and Geospatial Analysis of Water Quality and Individual Health Status in a High-Fracking Region

School of Health Administration, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Inform Environmental, LLC, 6060 N. Central Expressway, Suite 500, Dallas, TX 75206, USA
Department of Visual Communications, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1633;
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
PDF [2382 KB, uploaded 15 August 2019]


The expansion of unconventional oil and gas development (UD) across the US continues to be at the center of debates regarding safety to health and the environment. This descriptive study evaluated the water quality of private water wells in the Eagle Ford Shale as well as community members’ perceptions of their water. Community members (n = 75) were surveyed about their health status and perceptions of drinking water quality. Water samples from respondent volunteers (n = 19) were collected from private wells and tested for a variety of water quality parameters. Of the private wells sampled, eight had exceedances of maximum contaminant limits (MCLs) for drinking water standards. Geospatial descriptive analysis illustrates the distributions of the well exceedance as well as the well owners’ overall health status. Point-biserial correlational analysis of the haversine distance between respondents and well exceedances revealed four statistically significant relationships {Well 11, Well 12, Well 13, Well 14} with correlations of {0.47, 53, 0.50, 0.48} and p-values of {0.04, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04}, respectively. These correlations suggest that as distance from these northwestern wells increase, there is a higher likelihood of exceedances. Those relying on municipal water or purchased water assessed that it was less safe to drink than those relying on private wells for drinking (p < 0.001, Odds Ratio, OR = 44.32, 95% CI = {5.8, 2003.5}) and cooking (p < 0.003, OR = 13.20, 95% CI = {1.8, 589.9}. Tests of proportional differences between self-reported conditions and provider-reported conditions revealed statistical significance in most cases, perhaps indicating that residents believed they have illnesses for which they are not yet diagnosed (including cancer). In many cases, there are statistically significant differences between self-reported, provider undiagnosed conditions and self-reported, provider diagnosed conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: unconventional oil and gas development; health survey; anthropogenic impacts; perception unconventional oil and gas development; health survey; anthropogenic impacts; perception

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stigler Granados, P.; Hildenbrand, Z.L.; Mata, C.; Habib, S.; Martin, M.; Carlton, D., Jr.; Santos, I.C.; Schug, K.A.; Fulton, L. Attitudes, Perceptions, and Geospatial Analysis of Water Quality and Individual Health Status in a High-Fracking Region. Water 2019, 11, 1633.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top