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Crushed Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (CAAC), a Potential Reactive Filter Medium for Enhancing Phosphorus Removal in Nature-Based Solutions—Preliminary Batch Studies

1
Polytechnic University of Catalonia, C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa, Spain
2
Departament de Ciència de Materials i Química Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Polytechnic University of Catalonia (GICITED), Av. Doctor Marañón 44-50, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
4
Universidade Federal da Bahia (Instituto de Geociêcias) Rua Barão de Geremoabo S/N, Salvador 40.170-115, Brazil
5
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Bldg 1135, 8000C Aarhus, Denmark
6
WATEC Aarhus University Centre for Water Technology, Ny Munkegade 120, Bdlg 1521, 8000C Aarhus, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071442
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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PDF [1672 KB, uploaded 18 July 2019]
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Abstract

Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource and can promote eutrophication of water streams and acidification of oceans when discharged. Crushed autoclaved aerated concrete (CAAC), a by-product from demolition, has shown great potential for recovering P. The potential of CAAC to be used in nature-based solutions as a P-reactive filter medium was evaluated by performing preliminary batch essays. Here, we evaluated the interactions and main effects of the initial concentration of P (Pi; 5, 10 or 20 mg L−1), particle size (PS; 4 or 5 mm) and contact time (CT; 60, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 min) upon the removal. We performed physical and chemical characterization to understand the removal processes. Data collected were fitted in adsorption kinetic models. The statistical analysis showed a significant interaction between CT and Pi, with the combination of its main effects stronger on P removal than each one separately. Intriguingly, we noticed that the higher the concentration of Pi, the faster and higher the removal of P. Contrary to expectations, PS 5 mm showed higher removal rates than PS 4 mm, indicating that besides adsorption, other unidentified chemical processes are in place. Further studies using columns/pilots with real wastewater are recommended for a future follow-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; recycled concrete; tobermorite; kinetics; wastewater; reuse; calcium silicate hydrates phosphorus; recycled concrete; tobermorite; kinetics; wastewater; reuse; calcium silicate hydrates
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Castellar, J.A.C.; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Canals, J.; Bosch, M.; Rosell, J.R.; Silva, H.P.; Morató, J.; Brix, H.; Arias, C.A. Crushed Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (CAAC), a Potential Reactive Filter Medium for Enhancing Phosphorus Removal in Nature-Based Solutions—Preliminary Batch Studies. Water 2019, 11, 1442.

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