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Open AccessArticle

Stable Isotope Ratios in Tap Water of a Riverside City in a Semi-Arid Climate: An Application to Water Source Determination

College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
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Water 2019, 11(7), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071441
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Abstract

Stable isotopes (e.g., δ2H and δ18O) in tap water are important tools to understand the local climate or environment background, water sources and the state of regional water supply. Based on 242 tap water samples, 35 precipitation samples and 24 surface water samples gathered in the urban area of Lanzhou, the basic spatiotemporal characteristics of isotopes in tap water, their connection with isotopes in other water bodies and change during the process from raw water to tap water are discussed in detail, combining the information of local tap water supply and water source. It can provide reliable help for understanding the isotope characteristics of local tap water, regional water supply management and determination of tap water source of in a small area. Except for the establishment of a new data set of isotopes in tap water with complete time series and uniform spatial distribution of sampling sites, other results show that: (1) The Local Tap Water Line (LTWL) of Lanzhou is δ2H = (6.03 ± 0.57) δ18O + (−8.63 ± 5.44) (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.01). (2) For seasonal variations, δ2H and δ18O in tap water both are higher in autumn and lower in spring. The diurnal and daily variations of isotopes in tap water are not large. As for spatial variations, the monthly mean values of δ2H and δ18O in tap water at each sampling site show little difference. The isotopes in tap water collected from one single sampling site can be considered as a representative for isotopes in tap water in the area with a single tap water source. (3) Isotopes in tap water show weak connection with precipitation isotopes, but exhibit good connection (consistent seasonal variation, similar numerical range, small numerical difference and high correlation) with isotopes in surface water, which is the direct water source. Isotopes in water change little from raw water to tap water. Isotopic composition of tap water in Lanzhou can be used as a representative of isotopes in surface water. View Full-Text
Keywords: stable isotope; δ2H and δ18O; tap water; precipitation; surface water; Lanzhou; China stable isotope; δ2H and δ18O; tap water; precipitation; surface water; Lanzhou; China
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Du, M.; Zhang, M.; Wang, S.; Chen, F.; Zhao, P.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, Y. Stable Isotope Ratios in Tap Water of a Riverside City in a Semi-Arid Climate: An Application to Water Source Determination. Water 2019, 11, 1441.

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