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Water 2019, 11(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040799

Soil Water Dynamics in a Rainfed Mediterranean Agricultural System

1
Department of Environment and Soil Sciences, University of Lleida, Avinguda Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198, 25003 Lleida, Spain
2
Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Conservation in Agricultural and Forestry Systems)
PDF [1787 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]

Abstract

Rainfed Mediterranean agriculture is characterized by low water input and by soil water content below its field capacity during most of the year. However, erratic rainfall distribution can lead to deep drainage. The understanding of soil-water dynamics is essential to prevent collateral impacts in subsuperficial waters by leached pollutants and to implement suitable soil management (e.g., agronomic measures to avoid nitrate leaching). Soil water dynamics during two fallow years and three barley crop seasons was evaluated using the Leaching estimation and chemistry model in a semiarid Mediterranean agricultural system. Model calibration was carried out using soil moisture data from disturbed soil samples and from capacitance probes installed at three depths. Drainage of water from the plots occurred in the fall and winter periods. The yearly low drainage values obtained (<15 mm) indicate that the estimated annual nitrate leaching is also small, regardless of the nature of the fertilizer applied (slurries or minerals). In fallow periods, there is a water recharge in the soil, which does not occur under barley cropping. However, annual fallow included in a winter cereal rotation, high nitrate residual soil concentrations (~80 mg NO3-N L−1) and a period with substantial autumn-winter rains (70–90 mm) can enhance nitrate leaching, despite the semiarid climate.
Keywords: drainage; ECH2O probes; fallow system; LEACHM; soil water content drainage; ECH2O probes; fallow system; LEACHM; soil water content
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Jiménez-de-Santiago, D.E.; Lidón, A.; Bosch-Serra, À.D. Soil Water Dynamics in a Rainfed Mediterranean Agricultural System. Water 2019, 11, 799.

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