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Behavior of TiO2 and CeO2 Nanoparticles and Polystyrene Nanoplastics in Bottled Mineral, Drinking and Lake Geneva Waters. Impact of Water Hardness and Natural Organic Matter on Nanoparticle Surface Properties and Aggregation

1
Université de Genève, Institute F.A. Forel, Physico-chimie de l’environnement, Uni Carl Vogt, 66 Bd Carl-Vogt, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland
2
SIG, Industrial Boards of Geneva 2 Ch. du Château-Bloch, Le Lignon, 1211 Genève-2, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040721
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogeology: Trend, Model, Methodology and Concepts)
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Abstract

Intensive use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in daily products ineluctably results in their release into aquatic systems and consequently into drinking water resources. Therefore, understanding NPs behavior in various waters from naturel to mineral waters is crucial for risk assessment evaluation and the efficient removal of NPs during the drinking water treatment process. In this study, the impact of relevant physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water hardness, and presence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the surface charge properties and aggregation abilities of both NPs and nanoplastic particles is investigated. TiO2, CeO2, and Polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics are selected, owing to their large number applications and contrasting characteristics at environmental pH. Experiments are performed in different water samples, including, ultrapure water, three bottled mineral waters, Lake Geneva, and drinking water produced from Lake Geneva. Our findings demonstrate that both water hardness and negatively charged natural organic matter concentrations, which were measured via dissolved organic carbon determination, are playing important roles. At environmental pH, when negatively charged nanoparticles are considered, specific cation adsorption is promoting aggregation so long as NOM concentration is limited. On the other hand, NOM adsorption is expected to be a key process in NPs destabilization when positively charged PS nanoplastics are considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles; CeO2 nanoparticles; polystyrene nanoplastics; water hardness; NOM concentration; nanoparticle stability and aggregation TiO2 nanoparticles; CeO2 nanoparticles; polystyrene nanoplastics; water hardness; NOM concentration; nanoparticle stability and aggregation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ramirez, L.; Ramseier Gentile, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Stoll, S. Behavior of TiO2 and CeO2 Nanoparticles and Polystyrene Nanoplastics in Bottled Mineral, Drinking and Lake Geneva Waters. Impact of Water Hardness and Natural Organic Matter on Nanoparticle Surface Properties and Aggregation. Water 2019, 11, 721.

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