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Open AccessArticle

Real-Time Dynamic Hydraulic Model of Water Distribution Networks

Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0184, South Africa
Department of Electrical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
ESIEE-Paris, Cité Descartes, BP 99, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand, France
Built Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0184, South Africa
Honorary President of the Italian Hydrological Society, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 470;
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
PDF [1728 KB, uploaded 6 March 2019]


The impact of climate change and increasing urbanisation throughout the world has forced water utility managers to increase the efficiency of water resources. Reduction of real (or physical) water losses plays a crucial role in improving the efficiency of water supply systems. Considering these challenges, it will not be enough to rely only on traditional approaches to solve the problem of water losses. Therefore, more advanced techniques need to be developed and utilized. Recently, a framework for a real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction was proposed. This paper focuses mainly on the three major components of the proposed real-time dynamic hydraulic model framework for potable water loss reduction, which have been developed recently. These are background leakage detection, pressure management, and water demand forecasting. A background leakage detection algorithm was proposed which, amongst others, permits the localisation of potential critical nodes or pipes with higher leakage flow in the network where such pressure management could be performed. More so, new controllers (algorithms) which perform pressure management by accurately setting the pressure, using either a pressure control valve or variable speed pump, have been constructed. In addition, background leakage flow is greatly affected by demand variations, a water demand forecasting model is constructed with the aim of annexing the demand variation for multi-period leakage analysis. Thus, a short-term water demand forecast utilising the Model Conditional Processor was constructed to forecast the following hour demand and the associated predictive uncertainty. Although each of these components have been tested independently, future work is ongoing for merging these components and integration within the dynamic hydraulic model framework. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydraulic model; pressure management; leakage detection; demand forecasting; water distribution network; water loss hydraulic model; pressure management; leakage detection; demand forecasting; water distribution network; water loss

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Abu-Mahfouz, A.M.; Hamam, Y.; Page, P.R.; Adedeji, K.B.; Anele, A.O.; Todini, E. Real-Time Dynamic Hydraulic Model of Water Distribution Networks. Water 2019, 11, 470.

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