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Communication

Freshwater Supply to Metropolitan Shanghai: Issues of Quality from Source to Consumers

1
State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
2
School of Geography, University of Melbourne, Carlton 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102176
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Shanghai is experiencing drinking water supply problems that are caused by heavy pollution of its raw water supply, deficiencies in its treatment processes, and water quality deterioration in the distribution system. However, little attention has been paid these problems of water quality in raw water, water treatment, and household drinking water. Based on water quality data from 1979 to 2016, we show that microbes (TBC), eutrophication (TP, TN, and NH3–N), heavy metals (Fe, Mn, and Hg), and organic contamination (chemical oxygen demand (COD), detergent (Linear Alklybenzene Sulfonate, LAS), and volatile phenols (VP)) pollute the raw water sources of the Huangpu River and the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary. The average concentrations of these contaminants in the Huangpu River are almost double that of the Changjiang estuary, forcing a rapid shift to the Changjiang estuary for raw water. In spite of filtering and treatment, TN, NH3–N, Fe, COD, and chlorine maxima of the treated water and drinking water still exceed the Chinese National Standard. We determine that the relevant threats from the water source to household water in Shanghai are: (1) eutrophication arising from highly concentrated TN, TP, COD, and algal density in the raw water; (2) increasing salinity in the river estuary, especially at the Qingcaosha Reservoir (currently the major freshwater source for Shanghai); (3) more than 50% of organic constituents and by-products remain in treated water; and, (4) bacteria and turbidity increase in the course of water delivery to users. The analysis presents a holistic assessment of the water quality threats to metropolitan Shanghai in relation to the city’s rapid development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shanghai; water quality; eutrophication; conventional water treatment; secondary water pollution Shanghai; water quality; eutrophication; conventional water treatment; secondary water pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, M.; Chen, J.; Finlayson, B.; Chen, Z.; Webber, M.; Barnett, J.; Wang, M. Freshwater Supply to Metropolitan Shanghai: Issues of Quality from Source to Consumers. Water 2019, 11, 2176. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102176

AMA Style

Li M, Chen J, Finlayson B, Chen Z, Webber M, Barnett J, Wang M. Freshwater Supply to Metropolitan Shanghai: Issues of Quality from Source to Consumers. Water. 2019; 11(10):2176. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102176

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Maotian, Jing Chen, Brian Finlayson, Zhongyuan Chen, Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, and Mark Wang. 2019. "Freshwater Supply to Metropolitan Shanghai: Issues of Quality from Source to Consumers" Water 11, no. 10: 2176. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102176

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