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Open AccessArticle

A Classification Method for Fish Swimming Behaviors under Incremental Water Velocity for Fishway Hydraulic Design

by 1,†, 1,†, 2, 1 and 1,3,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2
China Water International Engineering Consulting Co., LTD, Beijing 100053, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Xiangpeng Mu and Ping Cao contributed equally to this work.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102131
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
In fishway design, the combination of fish swimming behaviors and suitable fishway hydraulic characteristics increases the fish passage efficiency. In this study, the most representative grass carp among the “four major Chinese carps” was selected. Under conditions similar to the time period for feeding migration, juvenile grass carps were targeted to study the swimming characteristic indicators (i.e., critical and burst swimming speeds) and swimming behaviors that were closely associated with fishway hydraulic design using the incremental water velocity method in a homemade test water tank. (1) The study results reveal that both the absolute critical (Ucrit) and burst (Uburst) swimming speeds increased linearly with increasing body length and both the relative critical (U’crit) and burst (U’burst) swimming speeds decreased linearly with increasing body length. There existed a quantitative relationship between Uburst and Ucrit, which could facilitate the fishway hydraulic design. (2) This study analyzed the effects of water velocity changes on fish swimming behaviors and proposed a classification method for four fish swimming behaviors—swimming freely, staying, dashing at a long distance, and dashing at a short distance—of tested fish during the process of adapting to water velocity changes interspersed with one another. The entire swimming process under the incremental water velocity was divided into four stages. (3) This study suggests that the maximum water velocity of the mainstream in a fishway using grass carp as the major passage fish should not exceed 52–60% Uburst at stage 1. For the high-water velocity areas of a fishway, such as vertical slots and orifices, the optimal water velocity should not be higher than 76–79% Uburst at stage 2 and should absolutely not exceed 90–96% Uburst at stage 3. View Full-Text
Keywords: fishway hydraulics; fish swimming behaviors; critical swimming speed; burst swimming speed; classification fishway hydraulics; fish swimming behaviors; critical swimming speed; burst swimming speed; classification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mu, X.; Cao, P.; Gong, L.; Baiyin, B.; Li, X. A Classification Method for Fish Swimming Behaviors under Incremental Water Velocity for Fishway Hydraulic Design. Water 2019, 11, 2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102131

AMA Style

Mu X, Cao P, Gong L, Baiyin B, Li X. A Classification Method for Fish Swimming Behaviors under Incremental Water Velocity for Fishway Hydraulic Design. Water. 2019; 11(10):2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102131

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mu, Xiangpeng; Cao, Ping; Gong, Li; Baiyin, Baoligao; Li, Xiang. 2019. "A Classification Method for Fish Swimming Behaviors under Incremental Water Velocity for Fishway Hydraulic Design" Water 11, no. 10: 2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102131

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