Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Current and Future Water Demands in the Upper Indus Basin under IPCC Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios Using a Hydro-Economic WEAP Model
Previous Article in Journal
Occurrences and Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Awash River Basin, Ethiopia
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Sand Mulches of Different Particle Sizes on Soil Evaporation during the Freeze–Thaw Period

1
College of Water Resources Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
2
First Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Team of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030024, China
3
Taigu Water Balance Experimental Field, Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources Survey of Shanxi Province, Taigu 030800, China
4
Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(5), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050536
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
Reducing ineffective evaporation is a feasible means to improve water use efficiency in agriculture, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. A field experiment assessed the impact of sand mulches (1-cm thickness) with a particle size of 0.5–1.5 mm (XS) and 1.5–2.0 mm (CS) on soil evaporation during winter in Northern China. Results showed that CS and XS increased by at least 11.93% and 14.92% compared to bare soil (LD), respectively. However, the sand mulches showed significant distinctions in soil evaporation at different stages. Soil evaporation was the highest in LD, while CS evaporated the least in the unstable freezing stage (P1) and stable freezing stage (P2); in the thawing stage (P3), XS evaporated the most, while LD evaporated the least. Ten factors affecting evaporation were analyzed using the principal component analysis method to elaborate the mechanisms of soil evaporation. Mean soil moisture at depths from 0 to 15 cm was a factor that affected the evaporation of XS and CS in the test. Soil moisture was evaporated by vapor when the frost penetration was dense and the frost impeded the vapor movement. The evaporation rates were steady and weak in this period, and soil moisture had slight impact on soil evaporation, especially XS and CS treatment with higher water content at the surface. The research is significant for preventing evaporation and the improvement of water-use efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil evaporation; sand mulches; influencing factors; freeze–thaw period; principal component analysis soil evaporation; sand mulches; influencing factors; freeze–thaw period; principal component analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Feng, H.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Xue, J.; Miao, C.; Du, Q.; Xu, Y. Effect of Sand Mulches of Different Particle Sizes on Soil Evaporation during the Freeze–Thaw Period. Water 2018, 10, 536.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop