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Water 2018, 10(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020150

Application of a Low Cost Ceramic Filter for Recycling Sand Filter Backwash Water

Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraidah 52571, Saudi Arabia
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Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the application of a low cost ceramic filter for the treatment of sand filter backwash water (SFBW). The treatment process is comprised of pre-coagulation of SFBW with aluminum sulfate (Alum) followed by continuous filtration usinga low cost ceramic filter at different trans-membrane pressures (TMPs). Jar test results showed that 20 mg/L of alum is the optimum dose for maximum removal of turbidity, Fe, and Mn from SFBW. The filter can be operated at a TMP between 0.6 and 3 kPa as well as a corresponding flux of 480–2000 L/m2/d without any flux declination. Significant removal, up to 99%, was observed forturbidity, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). The flux started to decline at 4.5 kPa TMP (corresponding flux 3280 L/m2/d), thus indicated fouling of the filter. The complete pore blocking model was found as the most appropriate model to explain the insight mechanism of flux decline. The optimum operating pressure and the permeate flux were found to be 3 kPa and 2000 L/m2/d, respectively. Treated SFBW by a low cost ceramic filter was found to be suitable to recycle back to the water treatment plant. The ceramic filtration process would be a low cost and efficient option to recycle the SFBW. View Full-Text
Keywords: sand filter backwash water; coagulation and flocculation; ceramic filter; flux; TMP; Turbidity; Fe; Mn sand filter backwash water; coagulation and flocculation; ceramic filter; flux; TMP; Turbidity; Fe; Mn
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shafiquzzaman, M.; Al-Mahmud, A.; AlSaleem, S.S.; Haider, H. Application of a Low Cost Ceramic Filter for Recycling Sand Filter Backwash Water. Water 2018, 10, 150.

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