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Raindrop Size Distribution Characteristics for Tropical Cyclones and Meiyu-Baiu Fronts Impacting Tokyo, Japan

1
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
Key Laboratory for Cloud Physics of China Meteorological Administration, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070391
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

Tropical cyclones and meiyu-baiu fronts, as the two main synoptic systems over East Asia, bring heavy rain during summers, but their long-term and vertical raindrop size distribution (RSD) features over the midlatitude Japan Islands are limited. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) techniques require RSD observations. In this study, five-year observations from Tokyo with a ground-based impact Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD) and a vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR) with a vertical range of 0.2–6.0 km were used to study the vertical structures of RSD and QPE parameters. The results showed that the convective rain associated with tropical cyclones had a maritime nature, while the rain associated with the meiyu-baiu front had a continental nature. The rain associated with tropical cyclones had a relatively higher concentration of raindrops and a larger average raindrop diameter than the rain associated with the meiyu-baiu front. The ZR (radar reflectivity-rain rate) relationships (Z = ARb) based on the JWD data for tropical cyclones, the meiyu-baiu front and total summer rainfall in Tokyo were Z = 189 R1.38, Z = 214 R1.35 and Z = 212 R1.33, respectively. When the ZR relationships obtained in this study were used to replace the operational relationship of Z = 300 R1.4, the standard deviation of the rain rate was reduced from 5.50 mm/h (2.34 mm/h) to 2.34 mm/h (1.32 mm/h) for typhoon (meiyu-baiu front) rainfall, although the change for total summer rainfall was small. In addition, with increasing height below 4 km, the value of A and b decreased. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZR relationship; Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer; micro rain radar ZR relationship; Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer; micro rain radar
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chen, Y.; Duan, J.; An, J.; Liu, H. Raindrop Size Distribution Characteristics for Tropical Cyclones and Meiyu-Baiu Fronts Impacting Tokyo, Japan. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 391.

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