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Indications of Ground-based Electromagnetic Observations to A Possible Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Electromagnetic Coupling before the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

1
China Earthquake Networks Center, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100045, China
2
The Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100036, China
3
The Institute of Crustal Dynamics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100085, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070355
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Models)
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Abstract

A large number of various precursors have been reported since the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake (EQ) took place on 12 May 2008 in China. In this work, previous investigations of both ground-based electromagnetic (EM) parameters and spatial ionospheric parameters were first examined. The statistical results showed that various anomalies presented different time-scale variations but tended to be characterized by a common feature – reaching their climax on 9 May, three days before the Wenchuan event, which indicates a lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere (LAI) electromagnetic coupling. Second, the fluctuations on 9 May based on the observational ground-based ultra low frequency (ULF) electrical field at the Gaobeidian (GBD) station and the direct current/ultra low frequency (DC–ULF) geomagnetic vertical Z field at the Chengdu (CD) station were comparably analyzed with those of ionospheric disturbances reported previously. The results showed that distinct electromagnetic changes, geomagnetic “double low-point” phenomena, and ionospheric disturbances above both sides of the Earth started in turn, respectively, but reached their climax simultaneously within dozens of hours on 9 May. This evolutionary process increases the probability that electromagnetic energy propagates from the epicentral area, via the atmosphere and ionosphere, to the equatorial plane, and through this plane finally to its magnetically conjugated area in the opposite hemisphere, causing electromagnetic disturbances on the Earth’s surface, in the atmosphere, and in the ionosphere and its conjugate point, in that order. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wenchuan earthquake; ground-based electromagnetic variations; ionospheric disturbances; lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere electromagnetic coupling process Wenchuan earthquake; ground-based electromagnetic variations; ionospheric disturbances; lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere electromagnetic coupling process
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Li, M.; Lu, J.; Zhang, X.; Shen, X. Indications of Ground-based Electromagnetic Observations to A Possible Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Electromagnetic Coupling before the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 355.

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