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Spatio-Temporal Consistency Evaluation of XCO2 Retrievals from GOSAT and OCO-2 Based on TCCON and Model Data for Joint Utilization in Carbon Cycle Research

1
State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070354
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Observation of Greenhouse Gases and Reactive Gases)
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Abstract

The global carbon cycle research requires precise and sufficient observations of the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO 2 (XCO 2 ) in addition to conventional surface mole fraction observations. In addition, assessing the consistency of multi-satellite data are crucial for joint utilization to better infer information about CO 2 sources and sinks. In this work, we evaluate the consistency of long-term XCO 2 retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) in comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the 3D model of CO 2 mole fractions data from CarbonTracker 2017 (CT2017). We create a consistent joint dataset and compare it with the long-term model data to assess their abilities to characterize the carbon cycle climate. The results show that, although slight increasing differences are found between the GOSAT and TCCON XCO 2 in the northern temperate latitudes, the GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO 2 retrievals agree well in general, with a mean bias ± standard deviation of differences of 0.21 ± 1.3 ppm. The differences are almost within ±2 ppm and are independent of time, indicating that they are well calibrated. The differences between OCO-2 and CT2017 XCO 2 are much larger than those between GOSAT and CT XCO 2 , which can be attributed to the significantly different spatial representatives of OCO-2 and the CT-transport model 5 (TM5). The time series of the combined OCO-2/GOSAT dataset and the modeled XCO 2 agree well, and both can characterize significantly increasing atmospheric CO 2 under the impact of a large El Niño during 2015 and 2016. The trend calculated from the dataset using the seasonal Kendall (S-K) method indicates that atmospheric CO 2 is increasing by 2–2.6 ppm per year. View Full-Text
Keywords: OCO-2; GOSAT; TCCON; carbon dioxide; CarbonTracker; joint dataset OCO-2; GOSAT; TCCON; carbon dioxide; CarbonTracker; joint dataset
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kong, Y.; Chen, B.; Measho, S. Spatio-Temporal Consistency Evaluation of XCO2 Retrievals from GOSAT and OCO-2 Based on TCCON and Model Data for Joint Utilization in Carbon Cycle Research. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 354.

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