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The South Atlantic–South Indian Ocean pattern: a Zonally Oriented Teleconnection along the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Jet in Austral Summer

State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10050259
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

Extratropical teleconnections significantly affect the climate in subtropical and mid-latitude regions. Understanding the variability of atmospheric teleconnection in the Southern Hemisphere, however, is still limited in contrast with the well-documented counterpart in the Northern Hemisphere. This study investigates the interannual variability of mid-latitude circulation in the Southern Hemisphere in austral summer based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset during 1980–2016. A stationary mid-latitude teleconnection is revealed along the strong Southern Hemisphere westerly jet over the South Atlantic and South Indian Ocean (SAIO). The zonally oriented SAIO pattern represents the first EOF mode of interannual variability of meridional winds at 200 hPa over the region, with a vertical barotropic structure and a zonal wavenumber of 4. It significantly modulates interannual climate variations in the subtropical Southern Hemisphere in austral summer, especially the opposite change in rainfall and surface air temperature between Northwest and Southeast Australia. The SAIO pattern can be efficiently triggered by divergences over mid-latitude South America and the southwest South Atlantic, near the entrance of the westerly jet, which is probably related to the zonal shift of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. The triggered wave train is then trapped within the Southern Hemisphere westerly jet waveguide and propagates eastward until it diverts northeastward towards Australia at the jet exit, in addition to portion of which curving equatorward at approximately 50° E towards the southwest Indian Ocean.
Keywords: Southern Hemisphere westerly jet; teleconnection; South Atlantic Convergence Zone; rainfall; surface air temperature Southern Hemisphere westerly jet; teleconnection; South Atlantic Convergence Zone; rainfall; surface air temperature
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lin, Z. The South Atlantic–South Indian Ocean pattern: a Zonally Oriented Teleconnection along the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Jet in Austral Summer. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 259.

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