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Spatiotemporal Change of Plum Rains in the Yangtze River Delta and Its Relation with EASM, ENSO, and PDO During the Period of 1960–2012

1,2,3, 1,2,3,*, 4, 5, 1,2,3 and 6
1
Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
2
Research Center for East-West Cooperation in China, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
3
School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
4
School of Urban and Geography, Lanzhou City College, Lanzhou 730070, China
5
Jianhu Data Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201700, China
6
Faculty of Tourism Management, Shanxi University of Finance & Economics, Taiyuan 030006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10050258
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lower Atmosphere Meteorology)
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Abstract

The Plum Rains process is a complex process, and its spatiotemporal variations and influencing factors on different time scales still need further study. Based on a dataset on the Plum Rains in the Yangtze River Delta, from 33 meteorological stations during the period of 1960 to 2012, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations of Plum Rains and their relation with the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) using an integrated approach that combines ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), empirical orthogonal function (EOF), and correlation analysis. The main conclusions were as follows: (1) the plum rainfall (i.e., the rainfall during the period of Plum Rains) showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and it had a three-year and six-year cycle on the inter-annual scale and a 13-year and 33-year cycle on the inter-decadal scale. The effect of the onset and termination of Plum Rains and the daily intensity of plum rainfall on plum rainfall on the inter-annual scale was greater than the inter-decadal scale, (2) the EOF analysis of plum rainfall revealed a dominant basin-wide in-phase pattern (EOF1) and a north-south out-of-phase pattern (EOF2), and (3) ENSO and EASM were the main influencing factors in the three-year and six-year periods, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: plum rains; ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); empirical orthogonal function (EOF); East Asian summer monsoon; El Niño-southern oscillation; pacific decadal oscillation; the Yangtze River Delta; multi-time scales plum rains; ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); empirical orthogonal function (EOF); East Asian summer monsoon; El Niño-southern oscillation; pacific decadal oscillation; the Yangtze River Delta; multi-time scales
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhu, N.; Xu, J.; Li, K.; Luo, Y.; Yang, D.; Zhou, C. Spatiotemporal Change of Plum Rains in the Yangtze River Delta and Its Relation with EASM, ENSO, and PDO During the Period of 1960–2012. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 258.

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