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Elliptical Structures of Gravity Waves Produced by Typhoon Soudelor in 2015 near Taiwan

LACy, Laboratoire de l’Atmosphère et des Cyclones (UMR 8105 CNRS, Université de la Réunion, Météo-France), 97744 Saint-Denis de La Réunion, France
Meteobooking, 1615 Bossonnens, Switzerland
Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, Université d’Orléans, CNRS, CNES, UMR 7328, 45071 Orléans, France
Central Weather Bureau, Taipei 10048, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 260;
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Mesoscale Weather Analysis and Prediction)
PDF [11356 KB, uploaded 10 May 2019]


Tropical cyclones (TCs) are complex sources of atmospheric gravity waves (GWs). In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model was used to model TC Soudelor (2015) and the induced elliptical structures of GWs in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) prior to its landfall over Taiwan. Conventional, spectral and wavelet analyses exhibit dominant GWs with horizontal and vertical wavelengths, and periods of 16–700 km, 1.5–5 km, and 1–20 h, respectively. The wave number one (WN1) wind asymmetry generated mesoscale inertia GWs with dominant horizontal wavelengths of 100–300 km, vertical wavelengths of 1.5–2.5 km (3.5 km) and westward (eastward) propagation at the rear of the TC in the UT (LS). It was also revealed to be an active source of GWs. The two warm anomalies of the TC core induced two quasi-diurnal GWs and an intermediate GW mode with a 10-h period. The time evolution of dominant periods could be indicative of changes in TC dynamics. The FormoSat-3/COSMIC (Formosa Satellite Mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) dataset confirmed the presence of GWs with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 3.5 km in the UT and LS. View Full-Text
Keywords: gravity wave; tropical cyclone; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; FormoSat-3/COSMIC gravity wave; tropical cyclone; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; FormoSat-3/COSMIC

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Chane Ming, F.; Jolivet, S.; Liou, Y.-A.; Jégou, F.; Mekies, D.; Hong, J.-S. Elliptical Structures of Gravity Waves Produced by Typhoon Soudelor in 2015 near Taiwan. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 260.

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