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Article

Structural Variation of the X Chromosome Heterochromatin in the Anopheles gambiae Complex

1
Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Genomics Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
3
Laboratory of Evolutionary Genomics of Insects, the Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
4
Laboratory of Ecology, Genetics and Environmental Protection, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
5
Department of Cytology and Genetics, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(3), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030327
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Driving Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Architecture)
Heterochromatin is identified as a potential factor driving diversification of species. To understand the magnitude of heterochromatin variation within the Anopheles gambiae complex of malaria mosquitoes, we analyzed metaphase chromosomes in An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae, An. merus, and An. quadriannulatus. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal DNA (rDNA), a highly repetitive fraction of DNA, and heterochromatic Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones, we established the correspondence of pericentric heterochromatin between the metaphase and polytene X chromosomes of An. gambiae. We then developed chromosome idiograms and demonstrated that the X chromosomes exhibit qualitative differences in their pattern of heterochromatic bands and position of satellite DNA (satDNA) repeats among the sibling species with postzygotic isolation, An. arabiensis, An. merus, An. quadriannulatus, and An. coluzzii or An. gambiae. The identified differences in the size and structure of the X chromosome heterochromatin point to a possible role of repetitive DNA in speciation of mosquitoes. We found that An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, incipient species with prezygotic isolation, share variations in the relative positions of the satDNA repeats and the proximal heterochromatin band on the X chromosomes. This previously unknown genetic polymorphism in malaria mosquitoes may be caused by a differential amplification of DNA repeats or an inversion in the sex chromosome heterochromatin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anopheles; heterochromatin; mosquito; mitotic chromosome; sex chromosome; satellite DNA; X chromosome Anopheles; heterochromatin; mosquito; mitotic chromosome; sex chromosome; satellite DNA; X chromosome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, A.; Kinney, N.A.; Timoshevskiy, V.A.; Sharakhova, M.V.; Sharakhov, I.V. Structural Variation of the X Chromosome Heterochromatin in the Anopheles gambiae Complex. Genes 2020, 11, 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030327

AMA Style

Sharma A, Kinney NA, Timoshevskiy VA, Sharakhova MV, Sharakhov IV. Structural Variation of the X Chromosome Heterochromatin in the Anopheles gambiae Complex. Genes. 2020; 11(3):327. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030327

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sharma, Atashi, Nicholas A. Kinney, Vladimir A. Timoshevskiy, Maria V. Sharakhova, and Igor V. Sharakhov. 2020. "Structural Variation of the X Chromosome Heterochromatin in the Anopheles gambiae Complex" Genes 11, no. 3: 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030327

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