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RNA Recognition and Immunity—Innate Immune Sensing and Its Posttranscriptional Regulation Mechanisms

Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
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Cells 2020, 9(7), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071701
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 13 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 16 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innate-Acquired Linkage in Immunotherapy)
RNA acts as an immunostimulatory molecule in the innate immune system to activate nucleic acid sensors. It functions as an intermediate, conveying genetic information to control inflammatory responses. A key mechanism for RNA sensing is discriminating self from non-self nucleic acids to initiate antiviral responses reliably, including the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes. Another important aspect of the RNA-mediated inflammatory response is posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, where RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in various RNA metabolisms, including splicing, nuclear export, modification, and translation and mRNA degradation. Recent evidence suggests that the control of mRNA stability is closely involved in signal transduction and orchestrates immune responses. In this study, we review the current understanding of how RNA is sensed by host RNA sensing machinery and discuss self/non-self-discrimination in innate immunity focusing on mammalian species. Finally, we discuss how posttranscriptional regulation by RBPs shape immune reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA virus; Toll-like receptors; RIG-I-like receptors; type I interferons; cytokines; RNA binding proteins; Regnase-1; mRNA decay RNA virus; Toll-like receptors; RIG-I-like receptors; type I interferons; cytokines; RNA binding proteins; Regnase-1; mRNA decay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uehata, T.; Takeuchi, O. RNA Recognition and Immunity—Innate Immune Sensing and Its Posttranscriptional Regulation Mechanisms. Cells 2020, 9, 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071701

AMA Style

Uehata T, Takeuchi O. RNA Recognition and Immunity—Innate Immune Sensing and Its Posttranscriptional Regulation Mechanisms. Cells. 2020; 9(7):1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uehata, Takuya, and Osamu Takeuchi. 2020. "RNA Recognition and Immunity—Innate Immune Sensing and Its Posttranscriptional Regulation Mechanisms" Cells 9, no. 7: 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071701

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