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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

The Roles of Endo-Lysosomes in Unconventional Protein Secretion

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
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Cells 2018, 7(11), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7110198
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unconventional Protein Secretion in Development and Disease)
Protein secretion in general depends on signal sequence (also named leader sequence), a hydrophobic segment located at or close to the NH2-terminus of a secretory or membrane protein. This sequence guides the entry of nascent polypeptides into the lumen or membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for folding, assembly, and export. However, evidence accumulated in recent years has suggested the existence of a collection of unconventional protein secretion (UPS) mechanisms that are independent of the canonical vesicular trafficking route between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). These UPS mechanisms export soluble proteins bearing no signal sequence. The list of UPS cargos is rapidly expanding, along with the implicated biological functions, but molecular mechanisms accountable for the secretion of leaderless proteins are still poorly defined. This review summarizes our current understanding of UPS mechanisms with an emphasis on the emerging role of endo-lysosomes in this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein translocation; misfolding-associated protein secretion (MAPS); unconventional protein secretion; endo-lysosome; intercellular transmission of proteins; protein quality control; neurodegenerative diseases; chaperone-mediated autophagy protein translocation; misfolding-associated protein secretion (MAPS); unconventional protein secretion; endo-lysosome; intercellular transmission of proteins; protein quality control; neurodegenerative diseases; chaperone-mediated autophagy
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Lee, J.; Ye, Y. The Roles of Endo-Lysosomes in Unconventional Protein Secretion. Cells 2018, 7, 198.

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