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Article

Evidence of Neuroinflammation and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Women with Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7500, South Africa
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Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, 75309 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 41685 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Translational Obstetrics Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia
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Mercy Perinatal, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia
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Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 41345 Mölndal, Sweden
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Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 41385 Mölndal, Sweden
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UCL Institute of Neurology, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Queen Square, London WC1N3BG, UK
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UK Dementia Research Institute, London WC1E6BT, UK
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Hong Kong Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Junie P. Warrington, Ana T. Palei, Mark W. Cunningham, Lorena M. Amaral and Alexander E. Kalyuzhny
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113045
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 16 October 2021 / Accepted: 4 November 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia)
Cerebral complications in preeclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality. Animal models suggest that an injured blood–brain barrier and neuroinflammation may be important but there is paucity of data from human studies. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia. We included women recruited to the South African Preeclampsia Obstetric Adverse Events (PROVE) biobank. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected around delivery. CSF was analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The CSF to plasma albumin ratio was measured to assess blood–brain barrier function. Women with eclampsia (n = 4) showed increased CSF concentrations of all pro-inflammatory cytokines and TNF-alpha compared to women with normotensive pregnancies (n = 7) and also for interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha compared to women with preeclampsia (n = 4). Women with preeclampsia also showed increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 but not TNF-alpha in the CSF compared to women with normotensive pregnancies. In particular, women with eclampsia but also women with preeclampsia showed an increase in the CSF to plasma albumin ratio compared to normotensive women. In conclusion, women with preeclampsia and eclampsia show evidence of neuroinflammation and an injured blood–brain barrier. These findings are seen in particular among women with eclampsia. View Full-Text
Keywords: eclampsia; neuroinflammation; blood–brain barrier; preeclampsia; cerebral edema eclampsia; neuroinflammation; blood–brain barrier; preeclampsia; cerebral edema
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bergman, L.; Hastie, R.; Zetterberg, H.; Blennow, K.; Schell, S.; Langenegger, E.; Moodley, A.; Walker, S.; Tong, S.; Cluver, C. Evidence of Neuroinflammation and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Women with Preeclampsia and Eclampsia. Cells 2021, 10, 3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113045

AMA Style

Bergman L, Hastie R, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Schell S, Langenegger E, Moodley A, Walker S, Tong S, Cluver C. Evidence of Neuroinflammation and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Women with Preeclampsia and Eclampsia. Cells. 2021; 10(11):3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113045

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bergman, Lina, Roxanne Hastie, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Sonja Schell, Eduard Langenegger, Ashley Moodley, Susan Walker, Stephen Tong, and Catherine Cluver. 2021. "Evidence of Neuroinflammation and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Women with Preeclampsia and Eclampsia" Cells 10, no. 11: 3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113045

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