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Article

Feeding Emitters for Microirrigation with a Digestate Liquid Fraction up to 25% Dilution Did Not Reduce Their Performance

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Council for Agricultural Research and Economics-Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing, CREA-IT, Treviglio, 24047 Bergamo, Italy
2
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics—Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing (CREA-IT), Via della Pascolare, 16, Monterotondo, 00015 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(8), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081150
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Water Conservation: Tools, Strategies, and Practices)
Irrigation with wastewater can strongly contribute to the reduction of water abstraction in agriculture with an especial interest in arid and semiarid areas. However, its use can have drawbacks to both soil and micro-irrigation systems, especially when the total solids in the wastewater are high, such as in digestate liquid fractions (DLF) from plant material. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the performances of a serpentine shaped micro-emitter injected with a hydrocyclone filtered DLF (HF-DLF) from corn + barley biomass and evaluate the traits of the liquid released within a 8-h irrigation cycle. HF-DLF was injected at 10%, 25%, and 50% dilution compared to tap water (at pH = 7.84) and the system performances were measured. No clogging was found, which likely depended on both the shape of the emitter and the high-pressure head (200 kPa). HF-DLF dilution at 10%, 25%, and 50% consisted in +1.9%, +3.5, and −4.9% amount of liquid released compared to the control. Fluid temperature during irrigation (from 9:00 to 17:00) did not explain the difference in the released amounts of liquid. In 10% HF-DLF % and 25% HF-DLF, a pH difference of + 0.321 ± 0.014 pH units compared to the control was found, and such difference was constant for both dilutions and at increasing the time. In contrast, 50% HF-DLF increased pH by around a half point and such difference increased with time. Similar differences among treatments were found for the total solids in the liquid. These results indicate that 50% HF-DLF was accumulating materials in the serpentine. These results suggest that a low diluted HF-DLF could directly be injected in irrigation systems with few drawbacks for the irrigation system and contribute to water conservation since such wastewater are available from the late spring to the early fall, when water requirements are high. View Full-Text
Keywords: clogging; drip irrigation; emitter; hydrocyclone; digestate liquid fraction; wastewater clogging; drip irrigation; emitter; hydrocyclone; digestate liquid fraction; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bergonzoli, S.; Brambilla, M.; Romano, E.; Saia, S.; Cetera, P.; Cutini, M.; Toscano, P.; Bisaglia, C.; Pari, L. Feeding Emitters for Microirrigation with a Digestate Liquid Fraction up to 25% Dilution Did Not Reduce Their Performance. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1150. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081150

AMA Style

Bergonzoli S, Brambilla M, Romano E, Saia S, Cetera P, Cutini M, Toscano P, Bisaglia C, Pari L. Feeding Emitters for Microirrigation with a Digestate Liquid Fraction up to 25% Dilution Did Not Reduce Their Performance. Agronomy. 2020; 10(8):1150. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bergonzoli, Simone, Massimo Brambilla, Elio Romano, Sergio Saia, Paola Cetera, Maurizio Cutini, Pietro Toscano, Carlo Bisaglia, and Luigi Pari. 2020. "Feeding Emitters for Microirrigation with a Digestate Liquid Fraction up to 25% Dilution Did Not Reduce Their Performance" Agronomy 10, no. 8: 1150. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081150

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