Next Article in Journal
Dynamics of Dual Scale-Free Polymer Networks
Next Article in Special Issue
Biosynthesis and Characterization of Recombinant Silk-Like Polypeptides Derived from the Heavy Chain of Silk Fibrion
Previous Article in Journal
A Cationic Smart Copolymer for DNA Binding
Previous Article in Special Issue
Biocompatible Silk/Polymer Energy Harvesters Using Stretched Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) Nanofibers
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110575

Restoration of Impaired Metabolic Energy Balance (ATP Pool) and Tube Formation Potential of Endothelial Cells under “high glucose”, Diabetic Conditions by the Bioinorganic Polymer Polyphosphate

1
ERC Advanced Investigator Grant Research Group at the Institute for Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, 55128 Mainz, Germany
2
Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Johann Joachim Becher Weg 13, D-55099 Mainz, Germany
3
Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, No. 50, Qixing Road, Guilin 541004, China
4
Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Biopolymer)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6923 KB, uploaded 4 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Micro-vascularization is a fast, energy-dependent process that is compromised by elevated glucose concentrations such as in diabetes mellitus disease. Here, we studied the effect of the physiological bioinorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP), on the reduced ATP content and impaired function of endothelial cells cultivated under “high glucose” (35 mM diabetes mellitus conditions) concentrations. This high-energy biopolymer has been shown to provide a source of metabolic energy, stored in its phosphoanhydride bonds. We show that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC cells) to “high glucose” levels results in reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic cell death, and a decline in intracellular ATP level. As a consequence, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tube-like structures in the in vitro cell tube formation assay was almost completely abolished under “high glucose” conditions. Those cells were grown onto a physiological collagen scaffold (collagen/basement membrane extract). We demonstrate that these adverse effects of increased glucose levels can be reversed by administration of polyP to almost normal values. Using Na-polyP, complexed in a stoichiometric (molar) ratio to Ca2+ ions and in the physiological concentration range between 30 and 300 µM, an almost complete restoration of the reduced ATP pool of cells exposed to “high glucose” was found, as well as a normalization of the number of apoptotic cells and energy-dependent tube formation. It is concluded that the adverse effects on endothelial cells caused by the metabolic energy imbalance at elevated glucose concentrations can be counterbalanced by polyP, potentially opening new strategies for treatment of the micro-vascular complications in diabetic patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATP pool; diabetes; tube formation; apoptosis; glucose; polyphosphate; endothelial cells; HUVEC ATP pool; diabetes; tube formation; apoptosis; glucose; polyphosphate; endothelial cells; HUVEC
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Ackermann, M.; Neufurth, M.; Wang, S.; Li, Q.; Feng, Q.; Schröder, H.C.; Müller, W.E.G. Restoration of Impaired Metabolic Energy Balance (ATP Pool) and Tube Formation Potential of Endothelial Cells under “high glucose”, Diabetic Conditions by the Bioinorganic Polymer Polyphosphate. Polymers 2017, 9, 575.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top