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Open AccessArticle

Recovered Energy from Salinity Gradients Utilizing Various Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Based Hydrogels

1
Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, P.O. Box 700, 1757 Halden, Norway
2
Department of Chemistry & Center for Pharmacy, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Sorrentino
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040645
Received: 14 January 2021 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Applications)
Hydrogels can be utilized to extract energy from salinity gradients when river water mixes with seawater. Saline-sensitive hydrogels exhibit a reversible swelling/shrinking process when they are, alternately, exposed to fresh and saline water. We present a comparison of several poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels, including poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(acrylic acid-co-vinylsulfonic acid) (PAA/PVSA), and poly(4-styrenessulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) interpenetrated in a poly(acrylic acid) network (PAA/PSSA-MA). The hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization, copolymerization, and by semi-IPN (interpenetrating polymer network). The hydrogels were placed in a piston-like system to measure the recovered energy. Semi-IPN hydrogels exhibit a much higher recovered energy compared to the copolymer and PAA hydrogel. The recovered energy of 60 g swollen gel was up to 4 J for the PAA/PSSA-MA hydrogel. The obtained energy per gram dried gel was up to 13.3 J/g. The swelling volume of the hydrogels was maintained for 30 cycles without decline in recovered energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; salinity gradient; polyelectrolyte; recovered energy hydrogel; salinity gradient; polyelectrolyte; recovered energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bui, T.Q.; Cao, V.D.; Wang, W.; Kjøniksen, A.-L. Recovered Energy from Salinity Gradients Utilizing Various Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Based Hydrogels. Polymers 2021, 13, 645. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040645

AMA Style

Bui TQ, Cao VD, Wang W, Kjøniksen A-L. Recovered Energy from Salinity Gradients Utilizing Various Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Based Hydrogels. Polymers. 2021; 13(4):645. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bui, Tri Q.; Cao, Vinh D.; Wang, Wei; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena. 2021. "Recovered Energy from Salinity Gradients Utilizing Various Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Based Hydrogels" Polymers 13, no. 4: 645. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040645

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