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Article

Rheological and Morphological Properties of Oil Palm Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

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Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal 76100, Melaka, Malaysia
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Centre of Smart System and Innovative Design, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal 76100, Melaka, Malaysia
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Aerospace Malaysia Research Centre (AMRC), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Advanced Engineering Materials and Composites Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Somen K. Bhudolia and Sunil Chandrakant Joshi
Polymers 2021, 13(21), 3739; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213739
Received: 26 September 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermoplastic Polymers and Composites)
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a filament-based rapid prototyping technology that allows new composite materials to be introduced into the FDM process as long as they can be manufactured in feedstock filament form. The purpose of this research was to analyze the rheological behavior of oil palm fiber-reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites when used as a feedstock material, as well as to determine the best processing conditions for FDM. The composite’s shear thinning behavior was observed, and scanning electron microscopy was used to reveal its composition. The morphological result found that there was a good fiber/matrix adhesion with a 3 wt% fiber loading, as no fiber pullouts or gaps developed between the oil palm fiber and ABS. However, some pores and fiber pullouts were found with a 5 and 7 wt% fiber loading. Next, the rheological results showed that the increment of fiber content (wt%) increased the viscosity. This discovery can definitely be used in the extrusion process for making wire filament for FDM. The shear thinning effect was increased by adding 3, 5, or 7 wt% of oil palm fiber. The non-Newtonian index (n) of the composites increased as the number of shear rates increased, indicating that the fiber loading had a significant impact on the rheological behavior. As the fiber loading increased, the viscosity and shear stress values increased as well. As a result, oil fiber reinforced polymer composites can be used as a feedstock filament for FDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: FDM; oil palm fiber; ABS; rheology FDM; oil palm fiber; ABS; rheology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, M.N.; Ishak, M.R.; Taha, M.M.; Mustapha, F.; Leman, Z. Rheological and Morphological Properties of Oil Palm Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Polymers 2021, 13, 3739. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213739

AMA Style

Ahmad MN, Ishak MR, Taha MM, Mustapha F, Leman Z. Rheological and Morphological Properties of Oil Palm Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Polymers. 2021; 13(21):3739. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmad, Mohd Nazri, Mohamad Ridzwan Ishak, Mastura Mohammad Taha, Faizal Mustapha, and Zulkiflle Leman. 2021. "Rheological and Morphological Properties of Oil Palm Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)" Polymers 13, no. 21: 3739. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213739

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